gay mu

Mawu ogonana amuna okhaokha adapeza njira Yake ya Chingerezi m'zaka zonse zapitazi ku Ghana.

Mu Chingerezi, mawu ofunika The 1890s omwe anali ndi chiyembekezo akupitirirabe kudziwika kuti Gay Nineties. Izi zanenedwa kale osati zaka zapakati pa 20th yomwe mawuwa anayamba kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutanthawuza makamaka "kugonana amuna okhaokha", koma kale anali ndi malingaliro ogonana.

Dzina lachidziŵitso limene limachokera limakhala lopanda kumasulira kweniyeni ndipo limaphatikizapo, poyamba, linagwiritsidwa ntchito kuchokera ku maudindo a malo osangalala; monga chitsanzo WB Yeats anapeza phunziro la Oscar Wilde mu Gaiety Theatre ku Dublin.

Kugonana

Mawuwo akhoza kuyamba Kupeza ubale wa chiwerewere monga wakale wa 14 th century, komabe adalandira iwo kuchokera pa khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri (17) Pakatikati pa zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri zapitazo, adalandila kufunika kwa "kukonda zosangalatsa ndi kutaya", kufalikira zachindunji zake zazikulu za "zosasamala" zomwe zimasonyeza "zoletsedwa ndi zovuta za makhalidwe". Mzimayi wakhala njonda mkazi wamasiye, komanso malo amasiye. Kugwiritsa ntchito kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi "kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" kunali kuwonjezeka kwa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa uhule: mnyamata wamwamuna kapena mkazi wa chiwerewere anali mnyamata kapena mwamuna wachinyamata amene amatumikira ogula amuna.

Chimodzimodzinso Zatsimikiziridwa Kuti Ndikhale Katsatana ndi Amuna Omwe Amagonana Amuna Kapena Akazi Omwe Amaphunzitsidwa ku Hobo, opereka chitetezo ndi kuphunzitsa komanso nthawi zambiri amasinthasintha. Kugwiritsa ntchito kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunaphatikizapo kufalikira kwa chiganizo cha chiganizo chogonana cha "onse osasamala komanso osatetezeka", chomwe chinasonyeza kuti ndi wokonzeka kuthetsa zachizoloŵezi zogonana zowoneka bwino kapena zovomerezeka. Ntchito imeneyi, yolembedwa kuyambira 1920s, inkapezeka patsogolo pa zaka za 20th, koma nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga moyo wosagwirizana ndi anthu, "'kuchokera ku mawu omwe amapezekapo kale" gay lotchedwa Lothario ", kapena mkati mwa dzina ndi mafilimu The Gay Falcon (1941), yomwe imakhudza kuti wofunsira womayi mutu woyambirira ndi "Gay".

Zomwe zimatchulidwa kuti "Gay", kutanthauza kuti adzizoloŵera ndipo palibe mtengo wolipira, popanda zotsatira. Ntchitoyi ikhoza kufunsa kwa amayi. Chombo cha British Comic-Jane, choyamba chinamasulidwa mu 1930s, Zomwe sizinatchulidwe, kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha chifukwa cha maulendo ake omasuka opuma maulendo ndi abwenzi ambirimbiri (ngakhale kuwonjezera.

Ngakhale ndime yochokera kwa Miss Furr ndi Miss Skeene (19-22) ya Gertrude Stein mwina ndiyo yoyamba yosindikizidwa yomwe ikugwiritsidwa ntchito nthawiyi kuti iwonane ndi kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha.Achidziwitso:

Iwo anali ... achiwerewere, adaphunzira zinthu zochepa zomwe ziri Zofunikira pokhala achiwerewere, ... iwo anali achiwerewere nthawi zonse.

-? Gertrude Stein, 1922

Mawuwo adagwiritsidwanso ntchito pogwiritsa ntchito tanthauzo lonse la "osasamala", mogwirizana ndi dzina la Gay Divorcee (1934), filimu yoimba yokhudza banja.

Kubweretsa Mwana (1938) inali filimu yoyamba yogwiritsira ntchito Gay polemba. Mu chowonetserako chomwe zovala za Cary Grant zimatumizidwa kwa oyeretsa, amakakamizidwa kuti apange chovala chokongoletsera nthenga. Pamene khalidwe lina likufunsanso za mkanjo wake, iye akuti, "Chifukwa chakuti ndangoyamba kukwatirana mwadzidzidzi!" Popeza ichi chinali filimu yeniyeni mu kamphindi, kamodzi kokha kugwiritsa ntchito liwu loti likutanthawuza kuvala (komanso, kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha) akadakhalabe wosadziwika kwa ambiri omwe amapita mafilimu, mzerewo ukhoza kumasuliridwa kutanthawuza kuti, "Ndangosankha kuchita chinachake chosasangalatsa."

Pakadali pano, kutchulidwa koyambirira kunapezedwa kumbuyo ku 1950 kuti mawu akuti Gay monga dzina lodziwika kuti abambo amodzi amachokera kwa Alfred A. Gross, mlembi wamkulu wa George W. Henry Foundation, yemwe adati kuyambira mu June 1950 nkhani ya SIR : "Sindiyenera kukumana ndi abambo ogonana achimwemwe. Ali ndi njira yodzifotokozera okha kuti ndi amuna okhaokha koma mawuwa ndi olakwika.

Pitani ku makamaka gay

Pakatikati pa zaka za 20th, amayi omwe adakhazikitsidwa bwino pazinthu zokhudzana ndi moyo wawo komanso zodziwika bwino, zomwe zinkakhala zolemekezeka, zowonongeka, komanso zowonongeka, adapeza zizindikiro zenizeni zogonana. Pazochitika za chiwerewere, zowonjezera zowonjezera zowonongeka ndi zovala zowonetsera ("chovala cha chiwerewere") zinayambitsa kusonkhana ndi msasa ndi kuwonongeka. Kuyanjana kumeneku kunathandiza kuti kufalikira kwa mawu awa kumatanthauza tanthauzo lake lenileni limene poyamba linangokhala ku zikhalidwe zina. Gay inali nthawi yosankhidwa kuchokera kuzinthu zowonjezereka, monga chiwombankhanga, zinkawoneka kuti zanyansidwa. Kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumawoneka ngati odwala kwambiri, monga momwe kugonana komwe kumatchulidwira kuti "kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" kunali panthaŵi yomwe matenda a matenda a m'maganizo mubuku lofufuza ndi lofufuza la Mental Disorders (DSM).

Pakatikati mwa zaka za m'ma 1800, ku Britain, kumene amuna ndi akazi okhaokha anali osagwirizana ndi lamulo lachiwerewere, 20, kuti adziwe chifukwa chakuti amphwakazi ankaonedwa kuti ndi okhumudwitsa komanso amatsutsa milandu. Kuonjezera apo, palibe mawu omwe akufotokozera mbali iliyonse ya kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha adaganiziridwa kuti ndiyenera kuchitira ulemu anthu. Motero, maulamuliro angapo akhala akudziwikitsa kuti akugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Zitsanzo zimaphatikizapo akazi "okonda masewera" ndi anyamata "ojambula", ndikumangirira mwadala mwapadera chidziwitso chopanda chilema.

The 1960s inanena kuti kusintha kwakukulu kwambiri pa mawu amodzi amodzi ndi "osasamala" kumapeto kwa "kugonana amuna okhaokha". Ku filimu ya British Comedy Drama Yambani Kumwamba! (1960), motsogoleredwa ndi Lewis Gilbert, ponena za ankhondo a British Army searchlight m'kati mwa nkhondo yachiwiri ya padziko lonse, pali malo omwe akuwonetsedwa ndi Benny Hill akuwonetsa chovala chamadzulo. Iye akuyamba, "Ndikufuna kukambilana ..." panthaŵi yomwe kudya kwa mnzako, kochitidwa ndi Sidney Taller, akuyitanitsa "Ndani?" , kutanthauza kukonzekera ukwati. Benny Hill khalidwe limayankha, "Osati kwa iwe poyamba, iwe siwe mtundu wanga." Kenaka akuwonjezera kukayikira kuti, "O, sindikudziwa, iwe ndiwe wamnyamata chete."

Kuchokera ku 1963, kumverera kwatsopano kwa mawuwa kunayesedwa bwino. Mofananamo, Hubert Selby, Jr. mu buku lake la 1964 lotuluka kunja ku Brooklyn, analemba kuti khalidwe "limanyadira kuti ndilo kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha chifukwa chodzimva kuti ndi amtengo wapatali kuposa iwo (makamaka amayi) omwe sali achiwerewere ..." Patapita nthawi Zitsanzo za tanthauzo lake lenileni la Mawu awa likugwiritsidwa ntchito m'zinthu zambiri zimaphatikizapo mndandanda wa zisudzo za 1966 Zojambula Zachisudzo The Flintstones, kumene owona amaonetsetsa kuti "adzakhala ndi nthawi yokalamba." Hermits ya 1966 Herman imati "Palibe Mkaka Masiku Ano", kuti anasandulika ku Top Ten kugunda ku UK pamodzi ndi Top Forty kugunda Kuchokera ku US, kuphatikizapo nyimbo "Palibe mkaka lerolino, sizinali choncho nthawi zonse; kampaniyo inali gay, tikanakhala usiku."

Mwezi wa June 1967, mutu wa chiwonetsero cha Beatles 'Sgt. Album ya Pepper ya Lonely Hearts Club Band mkati mwa nyuzipepala ya ku Britain tsiku ndi tsiku ija inati, "Gulu la miyalali limalimbikitsa zowonjezera pakati pa nyimbo za pop-ups ndi LP yawo yatsopano." Koma chaka chomwecho, The Kinks inalemba "David Watts". Ponena za nsanje ya sukulu, nyimboyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito monga nthabwala, monga momwe analembera Jon Savage "The Kinks: The Official Biography", chifukwa cha thongatchula dzina lake kuchokera kwa ogwirizanitsa amuna okhaokha omwe adakumana ndi bungwe la United Nations anali ndi chikondi chifukwa cha mchimwene wa Ray Davies yemwe analemba nyimboyo, choncho, "njira zake zowonongeka ndi zapamwamba" zimatsimikizirika kuti sichidziwikiratu panthawiyo, ndichidziwikiritso chachiwiri chokha chimene anthu akuchidziwa. Pambuyo pa 1970, '' gawo loyamba la Madonna The Virgin Blessed Virgin | Madonna | Jewess | mayi | mayi | mkazi) wamkazi Tyler Moore Show ikuphatikizapo momveka bwino Mary Richards 'pansi pafupi, Phyllis, mozizwitsa kunena kuti Virgin Wodala ali, zaka 30, akadali "ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso achinyamata."

Palibe kukayikira kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kungakhale koti anthu amtundu wankhanza amaimira "Good As You", komatu palibe umboni wa izi: ndi mawu ofanana ndi a etymology okondedwa.

Kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha

  • Kugonana, kudziwika, khalidwe
  • Nkhani zazikulu: Kugonana, kugonana, komanso khalidwe lachiwerewere

Psychological Association inafotokozera za kugonana monga "chizoloŵezi chokhalitsa maganizo, chikondi, kapena chikhalidwe cha amuna, akazi, kapena amuna a 2," kuyambira "panthawi imodzi, kuchokera ku zosiyana ndi zosiyana ndi zachikazi ndi zokopa zokhazokha kugonana kwenikweni ". Kugonana kungathe "kugawidwa mwa mitundu itatu: kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha (kugwiritsira ntchito kugonana, kukonda, kapena kukonda kugonana kwa anthu omwe amagonana nawo mosagonana), achiwerewere (okonda kugonana, okonda, kapena okonda kugonana ndi anzawo ), ndi chiwerengero cha atomiki cha 83 (kugonana, kukonda, kapena chikhalidwe chokopa amuna ndi akazi). "

Malingana ndi Rosario, Schrimshaw, Hunter, Braun (2006), "kusinthika kwa chikazi, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapena kugonana (LGB), kumagwirizana ndi labyrinthine komanso nthawi zina zovuta. anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana), anthu ambiri a LGB samawoneka kuti akuleredwa ndi anthu ena omwe amaphunzira kuti ndi ndani omwe amawalimbikitsa ndi kuwathandiza okha. M'malo mwake, anthu a LGB amakulira m'madera omwe sadziŵa kwambiri zogonana. "

Wolemba za ufulu wa chiwerewere wa ku Britain, Peter Tatchell, akutsutsa kuti mawu akuti gay ndi chikhalidwe chokha chomwe chikuwonetsera momwe zilili panopa pazochitika zogonana pakati pa anthu omwe apatsidwa, ndipo akuti "Queer, homosexual, homosexual ... m'kupita kwanthawi, Zonse zimangodziwika chabe. Madzulo amodzi, sitingawafunire ena. "

Ngati wina agonana ndi munthu yemwe ali ndi kugonana kofanana koma sazitchula ngati gay, mawu monga 'closedted', 'discreet', kapena 'bi-curious' angagwiritsidwe ntchito. Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, wina angayambe kugonana asanakwatirane naye. Zosankha zimaphatikizapo khalidwe lachiwerewere, pamene akusankha kukhala wosakwatiwa, kapena pokonzekera chidziwitso chachikulu cha kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Kuwonjezera pamenepo, munthu wokhudzana ndi matendawa amatha kuwonjezera kuti "kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" koma ena amatha kuganizira amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kuti azikhala osagonana okhaokha. Kawirikawiri amatanthauzidwa ndi kupepesa, kapena kufunafuna kukondweretsa ngakhale palibe ntchito.

Mawu omaliza

Ena amakana mafotokozedwe achiwerewere monga kugwirizanitsa ndi chizindikiro cha chidziwitso monga chotsatira cha Iwo amachiwona kukhala chovuta kwambiri kuchipatala; Komabe amakhulupirira kuti ndizovuta kwambiri pazochitika zakuthupi mmalo mwa chibwenzi kapena kukopa, kapena mofanana ndi nthawi ino kugonana kamodzi kanali kuganiza za matenda a maganizo. Zochititsa chidwi, mawu akuti kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amakanidwa ndi ena monga chizindikiro chodziwikiratu chifukwa amamvetsetsa chikhalidwe chokhala chosayenera kapena chifukwa cha malingaliro olakwika a mawu a mawu a slang.

Zolemba zamtundu, monga momwe zimakhalira ndi Associated Press, zimakhudza kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha:

Gay: amazoloŵera kufotokozera anyamata ndi amayi omwe amakopeka ku chiwerewere chofanana, ngakhale kuti abwenzi amodzi ndi amodzi ndi omwe mumakhala nawo kwa atsikana. otchuka kwambiri pamwamba pa kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha popanda zolemba kapena zochitika zogonana.

Pali Anthu Amene amakana kuti chizindikirocho ndi zolinga zina Kusiyana ndi chisoni kapena zosafunikira. Mlembi Alan Bennett ndi nyenyezi yotchuka André Leon Talley ndi ofanana ndi ena mwa njira komanso masewera otseguka komanso amuna akuluakulu omwe amakana kutchulidwa kuti ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kuwateteza kukhala oletsedwa komanso kuwatsitsa.

Gay Local Community. Gulu la LGBT

Kuyambira mkati mwa midzi ya 1980 ku United States, Pulogalamu yamakono inali kuyendetsedwa, mkati mwa zomwe zakhala zikudziwika kuti anthu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kubweretsa tanthauzo la kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kukhala mndandanda wa makampani ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe adagwirizanitsa amuna ndi akazi onse ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mawu enieni ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapena ngakhale amuna kapena akazi okhaokha akamalankhula za dera limenelo. Mabungwe monga National Gay Task Force anakhala gulu la National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Zinali zofunikira kuti L idayambike, kuyambitsanso L pambuyo poti G ndi chizindikiro chowoneka cha abambo pa atsikana, ngakhale amayi amakonda kugwiritsira ntchito msungwana omwe ndi amuna okhaokha. Kuyambira zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi zinayi mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu mphambu zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zitatu zapitazi, izi zatsatiridwa mosamalitsa ndi zina zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mofanana kuti ziphatikizepo mawu monga mawu owonjezera kunja kwa kuwonjezera pa kuwonjezera kwa transgender, bisexual, intersex, komanso amuna ndi akazi ena, akuyimira mkangano pakati pawo ziwerengero za kugonana zinathera gawo limodzi mwachindunji cha kayendetsedwe ka ufulu waumunthu. Makampani a News atenga mapulogalamu pogwiritsira ntchito, pambuyo pa kulawa ndi chitsanzo cha mayanjano awa, ngati akuyimiridwa muzofalitsa zawo ndi mauthenga.

Zolemba

"R Place" Gay Bar ku Seattle, Washington, United States.

Kufotokozera kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kungagwiritsidwe ntchito kuti mufotokoze Matters okhudzana ndi amuna, kapena magulu omwe ali gawo la chikhalidwe chomwe chinanenedwa. Mwachitsanzo, tanthawuzo la "gay bar" limatanthawuza kuti galasi yomwe ingakhale yaikulu kwambiri pakati pa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapena ayi.

Ndili kufotokoza chinthu, ngati chinthu chovala, Chiwonetseratu chimakhala chowotcha kwambiri, nthawi zambiri. Kugwiritsiridwa ntchitoku kumafulumizitsa ntchito yachitukukochi, komabe, wapeza ziganizo poganizira kuti kugwiritsa ntchito.

Gwiritsani ntchito dzina

Chizindikiro cha kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha chinali kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati chiganizo. Mawuwo akupitirizabe kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa dzina ndi "munthu wokwatirana amuna okhaokha" chifukwa cha 1970, ambiri nthawi zambiri pazinthu zambiri pa gulu losadziŵika, monga "ogonana amatsutsana ndi lamuloli. "Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwachinthuchi ndizochokera ku mayina a mabungwe monga Makolo, Mabanja ndi Mabwenzi a Lesbiya ndi Gays (PFLAG) komanso ana a Lesbians ndi Gays kulikonse (COLAGE). Angagwiritsidwe ntchito kwa anthu, monga" Gay "kapena" amayi awiri ali kumeneko, "koma izi zikhoza kuonedwa ngati zonyansa. Zinalinso zothandiza chifukwa cha umunthu wa Little Britain Dafydd Thomas.

Ntchito yogwiritsira ntchito pojorative

Pogwirizana ndi malingaliro oipa (mwachitsanzo, "omwe anali achiwerewere"), mawu oti kugonana ndi amuna okhaokha ndi achiwerewere.Achigwiritsidwe ntchito pakati pa achinyamata akuluakulu kuyambira nthawi yonse ya kusamvana ndi yachilendo pamene akusunga tanthauzo lake. mawu omwe amapeza malingaliro ndi bungwe ndi tanthauzo lonse, mu 1970 s. Kuyambira mu 1980s, makamaka pa zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi zinayi mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu, kugwiritsa ntchito ngati kunyoza kunakhala kofala.

Kugwiritsa ntchito mawu awa kunatamandidwa. Ngakhale chiganizo cha 2006 BBC kuchokera ku Bungwe la Akuluakulu mkati Mwagwiritsira ntchito mawu awa mkati Mwachikhalidwe ichi ndi Chris Moyle pawonetsero yake ya Radiyo, "Sindikufuna kuti iyeyo ndi wachiwerewere," akulangiza "kuchenjeza pa ntchito yake" pa cholinga ichi:

"Mawu akuti 'kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha', kuphatikizapo kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutanthawuza kuti 'gay' kapena 'osasamala', nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito kutanthawuza kuti 'wopanda thandizo' kapena 'rap'. "Mawu oti 'kugonana amuna okhaokha' ... sayenera kukhala okhumudwitsa ... kapena okonda zachiwerewere ... Koma abwanamkubwa adanena kuti Moyle akungogwirizana ndi zomwe zikuchitika m'Chingelezi. ndikumvetsera chiganizo chimenecho mkati mwa mkhalidwe uwu "Mabwanamkubwa amakhulupirira kuti pofotokoza tanthauzo la mphete ngati 'kugonana amuna okhaokha', DJ akupereka kuti akuganiza kuti ndi'crap ', osati' gay '.

Bungwe la Maboma la BBC

Ana, Kevin Brennan, yemwe adayankha kuti "kugwiritsa ntchito kosagwiritsidwa ntchito kosagwiritsidwa ntchito mopanda chilungamo kwa Main Stream tv DJs" ndi:

"Nthaŵi zambiri nthawi zambiri amawonedwa ngati malo osokoneza bongo m'malo odzudzula amatsutsana kwenikweni. ... Kuthetsa vutoli nthawi zonse kumalumikizana. Kusankha, kumangokhala kovuta "Kugonana kwa anthu kunayambika ku Britain pansi pa mawu akuti" homophobia ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, "kusewera tanthawuzo liŵiri la mawu akuti" kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha "mu chikhalidwe cha achinyamata, komanso maganizo omwe anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti anthu ambiri amatha kugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Chiwawa, ofufuza a University of Michigan Michael Woodford, Alex Kulick ndi Perry Silverschanz, pamodzi ndi pulofesa wina wa Appalachian State University, dzina lake Michael L. Howell, ananena kuti kugwiritsira ntchito mawu akuti "kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" kunali koopsa kwambiri.

Lingaliro la "kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" ndi kugwiritsa ntchito Mwachitsanzo Mwachitsanzo mawu akuti "moyo awiri" samasinthika ndi "LGBT Native American" kapena "Indian Indian" etymologically yamachokera ku schwül (yotentha, yotentha), adapezanso tanthauzo lachisokonezo Pakati pa chikhalidwe cha achinyamata, kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwachisangalalo kunayamba kufalikira m'madera ena a dziko lapansi. Pakati pa achinyamata olankhula, mawuwa ali ndi tanthawuzo lotanthauza kuseka (mwachitsanzo, ngati ofanana ndi zonyansa kapena zopusa) kuzinyoza kapena kutiseka (mwachitsanzo, kwa ofooka, opanda mwamuna, kapena olumala). Mugwiritsidwe ntchito kameneka, mawu amodzi amatanthawuza "gay", chifukwa amagwiritsidwa ntchito, monga chitsanzo, kuti ayang'ane ndi chinthu chopanda moyo kapena lingaliro losamvetsetseka lomwe silingavomereze. Zomwe adatsutsa ndikukangana.

Zolemba za Anti Gay pamodzi ndi mauthenga ndizolembedwa mitu yonse, Zolemba, ndi zilembo zomwe zinagwiritsidwa ntchito pochita zogonana kapena kugonana amuna okhaokha komanso kugonana amuna okhaokha, amuna okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, komanso kugonana ndi Transgender (LGBT). Amene akunena za zolinga zauzimu. Ena amafotokoza Adilesi ya chidani.

Kuwongolera kumabwera ndi maziko a boma mu Heterosexism, ndithudi idzasunthidwa ndi homophobia, biphobia, ndi transphobia.

Zolembedwezo Sizongomveka mwachidule Zimasonyeza kusagwirizana komwe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pogawira kukana malamulo a LGBT kapena kuvomereza kwa abambo ndi amai a LGBT.

Zotsutsana ndi ziphunzitso zosiyana zokhudzana ndi kugonana zimalimbikitsanso Ngakhale kuti kusiyana kwa kusagwirizana kuli kosiyana ndi chikhalidwe mpaka chitukuko, Zochita zimaonekera m'kupita kwanthawi. Kuda nkhawa ndi kuzunzidwa kwa ana kungakhaledi vuto chabe.

Kukambirana kungabwere pansi pa kunena kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumapita ku zoyambirira, kapena kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kungakhale Trojan Horse, kapena "kuwononga mabanja" ndi umunthu.

Chiwonetsero chachikulu cha malingaliro omwe amatsutsana ndi amuna okhaokha omwe amagonjetsedwa ku United States panthawiyo (1964) akhoza kukhala ku boma la Florida, Homosexuality komanso Citizenship ku Florida.

Onaninso kugonana amuna ndi akazi komanso Psych

Ngakhale kuti bungwe la zachipatala linkalakalaka kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunachotsedwa mu 1974 chifukwa cha matenda a m'maganizo mubuku lodziŵa komanso lofufuza za Mental Disorders (DSM) popeza silinalimbikitsidwe ndi umboni wamphamvu wazinthu zomwe sizinakwaniritsidwe matenda.

Pakhala pali kutsutsana pakati pa kusankha. Komabe, pogwirizana ndi kutsutsana kosiyana ndi ndemanga imeneyi, yosungidwa, ndi ena, The American Society for Defense of Tradition, Family and Property, mukhoza kupeza makhalidwe angapo omwe amatsutsidwa ndi anthu ambiri omwe angakhulupirire za umunthu, monga mwachitsanzo chitsanzo cha chiwonongeko. Zotsutsana ndi zowonjezereka ndizo zomwe zimaphatikizapo "zachilendo" pogwiritsa ntchito "zolakwika", chifukwa chake zongobwereza izi zimanena kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi kolakwika (monga kupha anthu), mwinamwake wamba. ndi chikhalidwe cha zinthu zomwe "zachilengedwe" komanso "zachilendo" zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito m'njira zambiri.

Osati Zotsutsa za kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ku San Francisco

Zambiri za zipembedzo za onse Abrahamu pamodzi ndi zina. Zipembedzo zambiri zachikhristu kuphatikizapo ambiri mwachikhristu ambiri (monga 'Pat Robertson ndi Jerry Falwell) amatchula malemba a m'Baibulo omwe amalimbikitsa kugonana ndi kugonana komweko ndi koipa. Amuna ndi mipingo imeneyi amaganiza kuti zochita zachiwerewere monga zamagulu ndi zolaula (kuphatikizapo chigololo cha mtundu uliwonse) ndizo zachiwerewere zomwe zimayenera kutsogoleredwa. Maunyolowa nthawi zambiri amatulutsa chiwawa ndi chidani.

Ndikufunika kutsimikizira chomwe Chodetsa nkhaŵa chathu kuti tipeze chipatso chanu uchimo chikuphatikizidwa limodzi ndi Khristu ngati chifundo chomwe sichingakhale choyipa kapena cholakwa. Tikukulimbikitsani kuti Chidziwitso cha Ambuye, chomwe chinathamangitsa tchimolo Kumalimbikitsa wochimwa. Tifunika kuyesetsa ndi kumasuka kwa okhudzidwa, kutumikira zofuna zawo ndikuwathandiza.

Mipingo ina imakana maganizo a kugonana kwa amuna ndi akazi monga kugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha monga kukhala ndi chinthu china ndi wina aliyense ndipo chilakolako cha khalidwe chimatha nthawi imodzi. Zolemba zosiyanasiyana zotsutsana ndi zotupa, mwachitsanzo, zochepa zomwe zalembedwa mu gawo lomwe likubwerali, zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mipingo yotsutsana ndi anthu, makamaka kuchokera kwa Fred Phelps, yemwe amapanga mulungu wotchedwa godhatesfags.com pamodzi ndi mpingo wina wa West Boro Baptist. Mipingo ina, mwachitsanzo Metropolitan Community Churches, imakhulupiriradi kuti kugonana ndi tchimo ndipo kawirikawiri limatsimikizira.

Kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumatchedwanso uchimo mu Islam. M'madera ochepa a Middle East amati, ntchito za kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha zimalangidwa ndi kudutsa. Dziko limodzi lomwe limavomereza ubale umodzi wa kugonana ku Middle East ndi Israeli, koma kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha n'kovomerezeka m'mitundu yochepa. Kuwonjezera pa Israeli, zochitika zofanana zogonana zimachokera ku madera a Palestina (West Bank) monga 1951. Kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumavomerezedwa kuzinthu zazikulu zachi Islam kusiyana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Mwachidziwitso, a Rev. Jerry Falwell anadzudzula amuna kapena akazi okhaokha (pakati pa ena ambiri) pochititsa kuti zigawenga zisawonongeke ku New York ndi Washington, DC pa September 1 1, 2001, poyambitsa chisokonezo cha ziphunzitso zachi Islam. Ponena za pulogalamu ya kanema yakanema ya 700 Club, Falwell adalengeza chidziwitso chotsatira (chomwe adachipepesa): ''

"Ndimakhulupiriradi kuti anthu achikunja ndi abortionists ndi akazi omwe ali pachibwenzi ndi achikazi omwe akuyesera kuti apange moyo watsopano - ACLU, People For the American Way, onse omwe ayesa kusokoneza America- -Ndinena zala pa nkhope zawo ndikuti, "Muthandiza izi kuti zichitike"

A Buddhist ochepa amatsutsa. Mwachitsanzo, mu 1997, 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso adati, "Kuchokera ku Buddhist, amuna ndi akazi amadziwika kuti ndi achiwerewere."

A Buddhist ochepa amatsutsa. Mwa Chitsanzo:

Chifukwa cha kawirikawiri pamutu wa zilembo 1 mlandu angakhale kuti mawu akuti "Edzi Amapha Fags Dead", zomwe zimayambitsa malondazi zimati "Kupha: Amapha Bugs Dead", mawu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mavidiyo akulengeza tizilombo toyambitsa matenda a SC Johnson.

Chilankhulochi chinkawonekera m'ma 2000 oyambirira a Edzi kuchokera ku United States, pomwe mliriwu watsala pang'ono kufa ndipo anapezeka ndi amuna okhaokha. Nthanoyi imathamanga mofulumira ngati nyimbo, chithunzithunzi, kapena chinachake chomwe chimatchedwa graffiti. Akuti liwu loyamba lidawonekera kwa anthu kuyambira zaka khumi ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zinayi zapitazo, pamene Sebastian Bach, yemwe anali mtsogoleri wotsogoleredwa wa Skid Row, wotchedwa metal metallic group, ankavala pa shati yomwe inkaponyedwa mwa iye ndi omvetsera. " fags. "

Mipikisano yambiri yogwiritsira ntchito mawu oti kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha. Izi zakhala ngati mwambo wa maliro a Mateyu Sheppard, komanso kuwonongedwa kwa chiwawa, ngakhale pamene Fred Phelps ndi otsatira ake adawaphwanya.

Monga tawonetsedwa ndi bungwe la World Health Organization, atsikana ali ndi 50 peresenti ya anthu omwe ali ndi HIV.

Chiwerengero chazochitika za kachirombo ka HIV zomwe Zingatuluke kuchokera ku Ubale Wotsatirawu zimasinthasintha malinga ndi khalidwe. Kubwerera ku Russia, mmodzi mwa kachilombo ka HIV mu 2006 pomwe makamaka kalembedwe kake kanamveka, pafupifupi theka linali chifukwa cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, omwe chiŵerengero chakhala chikukwera. Pafupifupi chiwerengero cha 60 cha milandu chidawerengedwa kuti azigonana pakati pa amuna. Mu Caribbean, akuti anthu pafupifupi 40 peresenti ya HIV ndizo zotsatira za kugonana pakati pa amuna. Pafupifupi 53 peresenti ya matenda opatsirana kachilombo ku United States, ku 2005, anamaliza. Chiwerengero chachikulu cha matenda a HIV ku Canada, mu 2002, amawerengedwa ndi kugonana pakati pa amuna, komwe kumadzulo kwa Ulaya kuti chiwerengero chawerengedwa ndi kugonana.

Omwe amawoneka ngati Lady Boy, msampha, ndi Amuna Amuna Ambiri Amuna achikulirewa ndi akuluakulu. Lingaliro la wina yemwe ali wosiyana ndi kugonana kwanu komwe sikugwirizana ndi kugonana kwawo payekha kwaphwanyidwa ponena za njira yomwe munthu amafunira kukhala nthabwala. Pamsonkhano, poyankha njira ina yopangira zisankho zokhudzana ndi chisankho za zipinda zodyeramo, Old Arkansas Gov. Mike Huckabee Anatumiza uthenga uwu ku Msonkhano Wachikhalidwe wa Zachipembedzo wa 20-16 ku utsogoleri wake: ''

Tili m'tawuni tawonetsera malamulo kuti mwana Wanu akapita kuchimbudzi mwina sangakhumudwitsidwe, choncho ngati munthu amulonjera kumeneko Ndipo simungakhumudwitse Akamaliza kumverera. Ndikufuna kuti ndinalangizidwa ndi wina kuti nthawi ina ndakhala ndikuganiza kuti ndikumva ngati wamkazi ngati nthawi yomwe inkafika Nthawi yoponya mvula ku PE. Sindikukayikira kuti mwina ndapeza mkazi wanga.

Huckabee Akulongosola "kuti pali chinthu china cholakwika chokhudza kukakamiza atsogoleri a LGBT pang'ono, mwachitsanzo Rebecca Isaacs, amenenso ali woyang'anira onse a Equality Federation, omwe adalembera makalata ku The Huffington Post kuti:" Aliyense ayenera kugwiritsa ntchito chipinda chodyera ndipo aliyense amasamala za chitetezo ndi chinsinsi. Ndemanga za Bambo Huckabee zimapangitsa kuti, ngakhale kuti zochitika zaposachedwapa zikuchitika, anthu a transgender akupitirizabe kusankhana ndi tsankho.

Pali mitu ya Anti-transgender. Roffee ndi Waling zinayambanso kudutsa mndandanda wa LGBTIQ +, pakhala pali chisokonezo chachikulu chokhudza zomwe amuna ndi akazi angazione, komanso izi zimasiyanitsa ndi anthu ena. Chisokonezo ichi chimapereka ku lingaliro ndi malingaliro omwe ife tsopano tiri ndi makhalidwe omwe akulowerera mkati mwa dera ndi nkhawa.

Kuvutitsa anzawo ndi Gay-bashing ndizozunza mwakuthupi kapena mwachipongwe Mosiyana ndi wina amene amadziwika ndi wachiwawa, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, transgender, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, mwachitsanzo amuna omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Ngakhale kutayika "kungakhale nkhani yapadera, komanso imodzi. Kutanthauzira mawu kungagwiritse ntchito kutulutsa, kuopseza, kuopseza, ndi kuopsa kapena kuopseza chiwawa.

Gay ndizochita zomwe mwadzidzidzi ndikupweteketsa munthu wodwalayo, zomwe zimafotokozedwa ndi anthu ambiri motsutsana ndi munthu wina, kuphatikizapo kusamvana kwa mphamvu zomwe zinali zamaganizo kapena zakuthupi. Zolinga monga kuzunzidwa kwa abambo, kusokoneza abambo, ndi mabenja omwe amawombera.

Gay-bashing yachitika kwa zaka zambiri tsopano ndipo ikupitiriza lero. Kugonana ku United States kunali kwakukulu kwambiri pamapeto a 1940s ndi oyambirira a 1950s, pamene anthu ambiri ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha anakakamizidwa ndi akuluakulu a boma ndi mapulani a mapulezidenti ochokera kwa a Purezidenti Harry S. Truman ndi Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Lavender Scare Helped akuwotcha moto kuchokera ku Chiwopsezo Chofiira. Pakati pa nkhani, anthu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso achikominisi amakhumudwa. Maphunziro awiriwa ankaonedwa kuti ndizosiyana ndi zikhalidwe zomwe zinabisika chifukwa cha kudzipereka, sayansi komanso chikhalidwe chawo, komanso malo awo osonkhana. Magulu awiriwa ankaganiziridwa kuti ali pamalo awo omwe amakhumudwitsidwa kapena ofooka. Ndipo magulu onse amakhulupirira kuti ndi osapembedza komanso osayera. Ambiri mwa anthu adakhulupirira kuti makalasi a 2 amagwira ntchito yowononga apolisi.

Anagonjetsa ndipo sanachite izi, ngakhale kuti iyeyo ndi alongo ake, adayambitsa zowawa zake pamakoministi kuti azidzudzula amuna kapena akazi okhaokha m'maboma a federal. Pogwiritsa ntchito mphekesera zomwe Drew Pearson analemba, wolemba Nevada analemba kuti McCarthy ndi uphungu wake wamkulu, Roy Cohn, anamaliza kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Palibe McCarthy biographer yemwe wasintha.

Kuthamangitsidwa kwa Queer

Eagle Canada inayambitsa mafunso oposa a 3700 School School ku Canada pakati pa December 2007 ndi June 2009. Chiwomaliziro cha pulogalamuyi, "Mkalasi Yonse ku Sukulu Yonse", yolembedwa mu 2011, inapeza kuti a 70 peresenti ya ophunzira omwe adachita nawo adazindikira kuti "ndizochiwerewere" tsiku ndi tsiku, komanso a 48 peresenti ya omwe anafunsidwa adapeza "fagot", "lezbo" ndi "Dyke" tsiku ndi tsiku. 58 peresenti pafupifupi 1400 mwa ophunzira a 2400 omwe akuchita nawo kafukufuku wa EGALE anapeza maganizo, ndipo EGALE anapeza kuti ophunzira a sukuluyi mwina mwina sanawononge biphobia chifukwa chodzimvera chisoni kapena kuti transphobia adatha kuzindikira za izi. pa nkhani yachisokonezo chachisoni cha nkhawa za anthu zomwe zimatanthawuza kuti mwina osakhala ndi nkhawa pakati pa anthu (mwachitsanzo, kuvutitsa anzawo) nthawi zonse amatsutsa zofunikira zake ndipo motero sangathe kuyankha mokwanira zofunikira za munthu amene ali ndi nkhawa.

EGALE, Pamodzi ndi kafukufuku wapangidwe wapeza aphunzitsi ndi a Faculty boma akhoza kukhala ophatikizika kuchokera kumsika.

Graffiti yomwe ili pamtunda ndi malo a koleji, komanso yake mwini "yachikhalire", akadakali mtundu wina wotsutsa.

Ofufuza ena amatanthawuza za ubwana Monga momwe zingakhalire ndi zotsatira zake Zauzimu mu pafupifupi kafukufuku uliwonse wokhuza kunyoza.

Kufufuza kwa makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu zisanu ndi ziwiri kudza makumi asanu ndi atatu mphambu zisanu ndi anayi kwa anyamata Ophunzira m'masukulu khumi ndi awiri ku London, England pakati pa 1998 ndi 1999 adawonetsa kuti akatswiri azachuma omwe amagwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "gay" kuyambira "nthabwala", "ndondomeko" komanso mochepa kulengeza za kugonana komwe kumadziwika. Katswiri wa chikhalidwe cha anthu a ku America, Michael Kimmel, komanso katswiri wa zamaganizo a ku America, Gregory Herek, analemba kuti amuna amadziwika kuti amadziwika bwino ndi akaziwa komanso kuti amanyansidwa ndi akaziwa powauza kuti ndi achiwerewere. Kukonza za lingaliro lodzisiyanitsa lokha ofufuza ena amatanthawuza kuti izi zimapangitsa kuti chikazichi chidzudzulidwe chikhoza kukhala misogyny. Nkhanizi zinafufuzidwa pa 2007, pamene CJ Pascoe wa zaumulungu wa chikhalidwe cha America anafotokozera zomwe akulosera kuti "fag" mu sukulu ya sekondale ku America, m'buku lake, Dude, Ndiwe Fag.

Achinyamata ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena akazi okhaokha amangofuna kuti alembe anzawo. Muzokambirana za 1 zinakhala zosafunika komanso zowonjezera.

Zifukwa Zobwezeretsa

Achinyamata ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha angathe kupanga mitundu yambiri ya kusungunuka ndi nkhawa chifukwa chokwera mmwamba. Kwenikweni, 71.4percent ya LGBT okhalamo amakumana ndi Chisoni (MDD). Kwa anthu a LGBT, MDD ikhoza kuchoka kwa wina mwa iwo Pambuyo pake: kukakamizidwa kuti azitha kusintha, kudzidalira, kuchepetsa mavuto a m'banja Kukana kwa mabanja, chiwawa, chitukuko cha chiyanjano, ndi kulera ana. Kulimbana ndi kudzidalira kumayenda pamodzi. Kamodzi munthu yemwe ali ndi LGBT amanenedwa chimodzimodzi kuti asangalale ndi zinthu zomwe angayang'ane, zimapereka chidziwitso pa kudzidalira kwawo. Pamene mawu apangidwa ndi anthu zomwe amawoneka kuti Adore, ndi zina zotero,. ayamba kuwalenga iwo akumverera osatetezeka. Izi zimapangitsa iwo kumverera ngati Ngati si zabwino zomwe akhala. "Kubwera" Ndizo zopereka Zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kufotokoza kamodzi pamene munthu wa LGBT amathandiza kumvetsetsa kuti akhaladi Gay, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, ndi zina zotero. Kubwera panja kawirikawiri Munthu amakhala wogwirizana ndi malo a LGBT omwe ali, chikhalidwe chawo nthawi zonse kulankhulana momasuka ndi makolo awo Ngati akukumana ndi kukana kwawo Patapita kunja onse amadziona ngati osakondedwa komanso osakondedwa. Zikhoza kukhala pamtunduwu kuti zikhale zowonongeka. Kulumikizana ndi kulengedwa kwa makolo ndizinthu zogwirizana Mofanana ndi anthu kumverera kukhala kholo limodzi Pamodzi ndizofunikira zina m'malo momasuka, makamaka pamene angachoke Kumudzi wa LGBT. Posachedwapa, pa March 20-16, yakhala yovomerezeka kwa LGBT Makolo kulandira mayiko onse makumi asanu. Kusakhala ndi mphamvu yokakamiza Achinyamata wawo makamaka angayambitse chisokonezo, komabe ngati atakana kuti kuvomereza koyenera, kunabweretsa mkwiyo. Nkhawa yazing'ono Zoonadi sizinthu zazikulu kwambiri, koma sizingapangitse munthu kumverera bwino kwambiri. Kupanikizika kochepa kumayesedwa ngati Chisokonezo chimene anthu a LGBT ankachita chifukwa chodziwika. Chiwawa chingawononge aliyense kuti ali ndi chikhalidwe cha nkhanza, makamaka chiwawa, kuchitidwa nkhanza, kapena kuchitiridwa nkhanza. Munthu aliyense akhoza kukhumudwitsidwa ndi momwe amachitira chiwombankhanga komanso samakhalanso ndi Zomwe amasangalala nazo. Mitundu iyi imalenganso ndipo onse amagwira ntchito limodzi.

Zomwe zimakuvutitsani

Kuponderezedwa kwa fodya kungachititse odwala ena kukhala oopsa komanso osasangalala padziko lonse lapansi. Kupezerera kungakhudze momwe wophunzira amalembera ku bungwe. Odwala ena amatha kubwerera kumtima kuti adzidwe ndi ziwalo ndipo amachititsa anthu kukhala ogwira ntchito. Anthu ena omwe amazunzidwa kwambiri angayambe kuyeza zotsatira za ophunzira osadziŵa. Queer kapena ophunzira angayesere kudutsa ngati amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kuti asiye kuzunza anzawo. Kupita kumamasula wophunzirayo ndi kuthandizira, ndi wophunzira kapena mafunso, ophunzira omwe angakhale ogwirizana. Akuluakulu a bungwe la United Nations akuyesera kupitanso akhoza kumverera mwachidwi zomwe zimasonyeza malingaliro ndi kusonyeza malingaliro, ndi kuyesera uku. Queer ndi kufunsa achinyamata omwe ali ndi matenda a chiwindi amakhala ndi chiwerengero chachikulu cha mankhwala osokoneza bongo komanso matenda opatsirana pogonana komanso kachilombo ka HIV, zomwe zingachitike mpaka kufika pakukula. Kupepesa kwachiwerewere kungaoneke ngati mawonetseredwe a mafilimu a Ilan Meyer omwe amachititsa kuti anthu azikhala ndi nkhawa zochepa, zomwe zingachititse kuti anthu omwe ali ndi chikhalidwe chogonana ndi anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana akuyenera kukhalapo m'chikhalidwe chomwe chinali chovuta kwambiri.

Zenizeni ndi Kugonjetsa khalidwe losavuta komanso losalongosoka m'machitidwe ophunzitsira

Kuchita zachiwerewere komanso chiwawa chapakati pazowonongeka kungasankhidwe ngati zofotokozera komanso zosamveka. kufotokoza nkhanza ndi chiwawa chophatikizapo chiopsezo ndi zochitika zomwe zimapangitsa maphunziro kukhala omanyazi, kuwonongeka, osasokonezeka kapena kuwopsezedwa. antchito ndi anzako samawoneka kuti sangalowetsere ngati akuwona zigawo izi. Izi zimapangitsa kuonetsetsa kuti ntchitozi zimadziwika kuti ndizochitika tsiku ndi tsiku kapena njira zina zothetsera mikangano pakati pa ophunzira. chiwawa ndi transphobic ndi ziwawa zokhudzana ndi nkhanza zokhudzana ndi chiwerengero cha amayi - zimatchulidwa chifukwa cha madandaulo a kubwezera, kuphatikizapo chithandizo chokwanira kapena chosakwanira, zothandizira ndi zowonongeka. Kusakhala ndi ndondomeko zabwino, chitetezo kapena mankhwala akuthandizira kubwezeretsedwanso paliponse pamene zochitika zikukhala zachikhalidwe.

Wotchedwa 'chiwawa chowonekera' kapena "chiwawa" chachipembedzo, ndizopusitsa kuposa chiwawa. Zimakhala ndi ziwonetsero zofala kwambiri zomwe zimawoneka kuti sizikuvulaza kapena zachilengedwe kumudzi wa varsity, ngakhale kuti zimathandiza kapena kulimbikitsa kusagwirizana ndi zowonongeka, komanso kupititsa patsogolo zolakwika. Zitsanzo za chisankho choletsedwa ndi chiwawa chophatikizana ndi:

  • Malingana ndi chikhalidwe chawo cha kugonana kapena chidziwitso cha amai / mwachitsanzo, sayansi kwa ophunzira amphongo omwe amachitira amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi sewero la ophunzira a amuna amasiye).
  • Khalani ndi bungwe lalikulu kapena mphamvu (mwachitsanzo, malingaliro a ophunzira a LGBTI amachitiridwa ngati gawo limodzi ndi losafunikira).
  • Kupititsa patsogolo zolakwika zomwe zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi kugonana kapena Gender identity / kufotokozera muzinthu zamaphunziro kapena kuphunzitsira aphunzitsi, monga kupyolera mu zithunzi ndi zokambirana (mwachitsanzo, kukambirana ndi kugonana monga 'zachizolowezi').

Masamba ndi zitsanzo

Phunziro lapadera la 1998 lopindulitsa kwambiri lomwe linachitidwa ndi Association of Academics and Lecturers, mgwirizano wa a United Kingdom akatswiri, mawu oti "gay" adanenedwa kuti ndiwo omwe amachititsa kuti aphunzitsi azigwiritsa ntchito molakwika tsiku ndi tsiku.

Pa gawo losavuta la ophunzira ogonana ndi amuna okhaokha omwe ali ndi zibwenzi m'mayunivesite a ku Britain akhala akuvutitsidwa ndi amuna okhaokha mu 2007, motsatira ndi phunziro lopangidwa ndi a faculties Education Unit a LGW activist cluster Stonewall. ambiri omwe anali hangdog anali ndi zida zankhondo, makumi anayi% anali atagonjetsedwa, ndipo khumi ndi asanu ndi awiri adalandira zoopseza za imfa. Idawonetseranso kuti ophunzira oposa mazana asanu adalephera kuyankha chilankhulo chachisankho chomwe anachiwona mosamalitsa m'chipinda, ndipo makumi awiri pa asanu okha a ophunzira adamuwuza ophunzira kuti kusamvana kolakwika kunali kolakwika, kusonyeza "chithunzi chodabwitsa cha chisankho chawo Kuzunza kwapadera kwa ophunzira anzawo komanso, oopsa, ogwira ntchito ku koleji ", ndi maphunziro aliwonse omwe anachitidwa ndi chikondi chomwechi ku 2012 adanena kuti ophunzira makumi asanu ndi anayi osaphunzira sanagwiritse ntchito poletsa kusokoneza ena mwachinyengo.

Mlingo wodzipha ndi wapamwamba pakati pa anthu a LGBT. Malingana ndi kafukufuku omwe adachitika ndi a faculties Education Unit a Stonewall, bungwe lofufuza za intaneti ku LGB, afukufuku wa pa intaneti akuti makumi asanu ndi awiri mwa amayi 100 aliwonse omwe akugwira nawo ntchito bungwe la United Nations lotchedwa LGBTQ, ndi mnyamata makumi asanu ndi awiri (7%) omwe akugwira nawo ntchito bungwe la United Nations lotchedwa LGBTQ anali ataganizira kwambiri za kudzipha. Mu 1985, F. Paris yodzichepetsa kuti kudzipha ndi achinyamata achiwerewere kungaphatikizepo mpaka makumi atatu mwa atatu mwa achinyamata odzipha okha m'mayiko a North America. Izi zimapangitsa munthu kudzipha kukhala chinthu chachiwiri chomwe chimayambitsa imfa pakati pa achinyamata omwe ali ndi zaka 10 - 24, zomwe zimayesedwa ndi bungwe la boma.

milandu

(Podlesny) motsutsana ndi maofesala ku sukulu yake yapamwamba yapamwamba ku Ashland, Wisconsin chifukwa chokana kulowerera mu "chiopsezo chotsutsana ndi achiwerewere ndi mawu achipongwe ndi ophunzira anzawo" kuti adamugonjetsa ndipo adachititsa kuti adziŵe kuchipatala.

Matthew Sheppard anali munthu wothandizana ndi digiti ya koleji ku koleji ku yunivesite ya American state United Nations bungwe linalake lozunzidwa ndi lakufa ku Laramie, boma la America mu kalendala ya Gregorian mwezi 1998, chifukwa choyamikila kugonana kwake. Imfa yake imakhala yokonzanso malamulo oletsa kuzunza monga Matthew Sheppard ndi James Byrd, Jr. Act of Violence Act.

Derek Henkle, wophunzira wamaphunziro akuluakulu omwe sanayambe kuchita nawo ntchito kuchokera kwa akuluakulu a sukulu omwe anzake amamuvutitsa mobwerezabwereza ku Reno, Nevada. Nkhani yake yotsutsana ndi dera la varsity ndi ena oyang'anira madera anachititsa kuti 2002 ikhazikitsidwe kumene chigawochi chimafuna kupanga malamulo angapo pofuna kuteteza ophunzira achiwerewere ndi azimayi komanso kulipira Henkel $ 451,000.

Damilola Taylor adagwidwa ndi gulu la achinyamata la Nov 20, 7, 2000 ku Peckham, South London; iye anapha munthu kamodzi akuvulala ndi botolo losweka mkati mwa ntchafu, lomwe linadula arteria chachikazi ndi. Bungwe la BBC, Telegraph, Guardian ndi nyuzipepala zodzipatula zomwe zinafotokozedwa panthaŵi yomwe mkati mwa masabata pakatikati mwa United Kingdom kuchokera ku Federal Republic of Nigeria ndipo chifukwa cha kuukira kumene iye adamuzunza ndi kumenyedwa, kuphatikizapo kuyankhulidwa ndi kagulu ka anyamata mphamvu yake. "Wosamuuzayo anamuuza kuti anali kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha." Iye "mwina sangamvetsetse chifukwa chake anali hangdog kusukulu, kapena chifukwa chake ana ena amunyoza kuti" gay "- kuti mawuwo sanatanthauze kanthu kena kali konse. Iye anayenera kukweza mayi ake what'gay 'amatanthauza, adati "Anyamata amamunamizira kuti ali ndi mawu ambiri owopsya. Izi ndizo ntchito zomwe amadziwika nazo. Mayi ake adalankhula za ovutitsa anzawo, komabe akatswiriwo sanamvetsetse." Anati ophunzira adakayikira kuti mwana wake wamwamuna ndi wamkazi adamugonjetsa Lachisanu latha latha. Patatha mwezi umodzi, bambo ake omwewo, "Ndinalankhula naye ndipo anali kulira kuti anali hangdog ndipo amatchulidwanso kuti mayina. Iye wakhala akutchedwa 'gay'. "M'kati mwa zaka zatsopano zandale 2 patapita zaka, pakadakhala kuti panalibe chidziwitso cha mlanduwu, Peter Tat helo, polandu ya ufulu wa amuna, anati," M'masiku omwe anapha ku South London ku Nov 2000that iye anazunzidwa mwankhanza ndi kuzunzidwa, ndipo adafunsa chifukwa chake akuluakulu a boma adanyalanyaza izi asanamwalire.

Mu 2009, Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, mwana wa sukulu wazaka 11 wa zaka zapakati pa Springfield, Massachusetts, adadzipachika ndi twina la magetsi. Amayi ake omwe ali nawo m'kalasi yake pa lyceum anali ndi hangdog ndipo amatchedwa "kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" pa chizoloŵezi.

Mu 2010, mwamuna ndi mkazi wochokera ku Cameroon adapatsidwa chithandizo mu uk kamodzi kofalitsa komwe adawavutitsa ndi adiresi ya gulu la anthu okwiya ku Cameroon pamene adamuwona akuwombera mwamuna wake. Pulezidenti wa Cameroun, Issa Tchiroma, anakana chigamulo cha kuzunza amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Tyler Clementi adadzipha pa Septi makumi awiri ndi awiri, 2010, pomwe mnzakeyo pa yunivesite ya Rutgers pa QT adalemba zakugonana ndi mwamuna wina.

Mwamuna wazaka 32 wazaka zakuthupi, Scotland anali hangdog ndipo amamuvutitsa ndi mtsogoleri wake, ndondomeko yamzinda, asanatayidwe. Pambuyo pake adatsutsa mgwirizano ndipo adapambana mphoto #120,000.

Pa kalendala ya Gregory mwezi wa khumi ndi anai, 2011, Jamie Hubley, wachinyamata wa ku Canada dzina lake Allan Hubley, mwana wa kampani ya Ottawa mumzinda wa Ottawa, adadzipha kuti adzipha kwa mwezi umodzi potsutsa zachipongwe zomwe amatsutsana nazo. Kuvutitsidwa kunayamba kale kumapeto kwa Gawo lachisanu ndi chiwiri, ndi ophunzira pa basi ya Jamie akuyesa kuyambitsa mabakiteriya mkamwa mwake chifukwa chokonda kwambiri kusewera mazira pa hockey.

Phillip Parker, wophunzira wamwamuna wazaka za 14 wachiwerewere ku Gordonsville, Tennessee, anapezeka ali wakufa pa Jan makumi awiri, 2012. Anadzipha chifukwa cha kugawidwa kwa amuna okhaokha. Bambo ake, bungwe la United Nations linatchedwanso Phillip, akuti "Ameneyo ndiye bambo wanga weniweni. ndimamukonda kwambiri. Ndikumusamala. Iye sakanafunikanso kuti adzichotse yekha kuti aponyedwe m'moyo "pa thupi linali kalata, yomwe inalembedwa kuti:" Chonde lolani Pine Tree State kukhala mayi ".

Kenneth Weishuhn, mchimwene watsopano wa sukulu ya sekondale ku South O'Brien ku Iowa, adadzipachika pomwepo panthawi yomweyo akuzunza, kuzunzidwa kwa cyber ndi kuopseza imfa ku 2012 mkati mwa garaja la banja lake. Kudzipha kwake kwakhala kulimbikitsidwa mafunso onse padziko lonse.

Jading Bell, ali mwana ku La Grande, Oregon, anayesetsa kuti adziphe yekha pomangokhalira kuponderezedwa panthawi yomwe ankazunza kwambiri ku sukulu yake yapamwamba ku 2013. Banjali linafa pachipatala cha OHSU. Bambo ake Joe Bell anayamba kuyendayenda kudutsa America kuti afotokoze chidwi koma adagwa ndi kuphedwa ndi njira ya galimoto pakati pa ulendo wake wonse.

Malamulo

  • Mayiko angapo a ku US adakakamiza malamulo kuti athetserane.
  • Malamulo omwe amaletsa kusankhana motsutsana ndi ophunzira kumagwirizana ndi kugonana komanso kusiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi
  • Malamulo omwe amaletsa kusankhana motsutsana ndi ophunzira amathandizira kugonana
  • Malamulo omwe amaletsa Kupezerera kwa akatswiri kumathandizira kugonana ndi kugonana
  • Makhazikitsidwe a sukulu kapena chikhalidwe kwa ophunzirira kuti kuyankhulana kapena kusankhana kwa akatswiri kuganizira za kugonana ndi kudziwika kwa amuna ndi akazi
  • Lamulo la sukulu kapena chikhalidwe kwa akatswiri omwe amaletsa kuzunzidwa kapena kusalidwa kwa ophunzira kumathandizira kugonana
  • Malamulo omwe amaletsa maphunziro ochokera ku Sukulu a mavuto a LGBT mwachangu
  • Malamulo omwe amaletsa kuopseza ku koleji samapezanso makalasi otetezera
  • Palibe lamulo lalikulu lomwe limaletsa mwachindunji kuponderezedwa mu makoleji
  • Dipatimenti imeneyi imalimbikitsa kukula. Zimatheka kuthandiza powonjezerapo. (December 2010)

Dziko la Illinois linapereka malamulo (SB3266) pa June 2010 Amene amaletsa kuzunzidwa komabe ngati maphunziro osiyanasiyana m'mayunivesiti.

Ku Philippines, olemba malamulo adalimbikitsa Republic Act No. 10627, monga njira ina yotchedwa Anti-Bullying Act ya 2013. Kuchokera ku malamulo omwewo, kuponderezedwa kwa amuna ndi akazi kumatchulidwa monga? Zochita zilizonse zomwe zimanyalanyaza Or zimapatula munthu chifukwa cha lingaliro lachiwerewere kapena kugonana kwenikweni (SOGI)? ).

Support

Zomwe zimachitika poyambitsa chidziwitso cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Pali magulu angapo omwe amathandizidwa kuti athandize abambo ndi amai a LGBT kuti agwirizane ndi kugwiritsa ntchito molakwa.

Zosangalatsa M'kati mwa United States Pangani Kukhala Wanu Zopindulitsa Pulogalamu, Pakuti abambo ndi abambo ndi abambo a LGBT amapanga mafilimu a YouTube akugawana mauthenga a kuyembekezera kuti athandize achinyamata omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Coalition Safe Safe amapereka zipangizo kwa ophunzira koleji ndi ophunzitsira. Egale Canada ikugwira ntchito ndi okhoma msonkho a LGBT ku Canada.

Njira yotsatirayi ndi yokhudza njira zamagulu pakati pa amuna. Kuti mupeze Ziphunzitso pakati pa anyamata, pitani kuchipatala chogonana.

Kutanthauzira Hadrian ndi Antonius

Zogonana ndizochita zogonana pakati pa anyamata Amagonana ndi amuna (MSM), ziribe kanthu kugonana kapena kugonana. Olemba nkhani iyi ya 1948 Kinsey amanena kuti 37 peresenti m'mitu yawo yomwe adakumana nayo ndi amodzi okhaokha. Umboni umasonyeza kuti kugonana pakati pa amuna kumatchulidwa pamasankho chifukwa cha zofuna za anthu.

Anyamata awiri adagwira nawo ntchito podzikweza pochita zinthu momasuka

Zakale, kugonana kwagogwirizanitsa ndi MSM ambiri, koma samakonda kutenga nawo mbali kugonana, kugonana kapena kugonana, kapena chilakolako chogonana mmalo mwake. MMS ingathenso kuchita mbali zosiyanasiyana za kugonana, mwachitsanzo monga chitsanzo fallatio, tiketi, ndi anglings. Pulogalamu ya 2011 yochokera ku Journal of Sexual Medicine inapezanso zotsatira zofanana ndi za kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha komanso amuna okhaokha a ku America. Kupsompsana mnzanu m'kamwa mwako (74.5percent), kugonana kwa m'kamwa (72.7percent), komanso kugonana kosakanikirana (68.4percent) ndi khalidwe la 3 kawirikawiri, pamodzi ndi 63.2percent ya zitsanzo zodzipangira 5 kwa makhalidwe asanu ndi asanu ndi atatu ogonana pazochitika zawo zomaliza .

Mmodzi mwa amuna omwe agonana ndi Amuna Osiyana Amzake akhoza kudziwika chifukwa chapamwamba kwambiri, kawirikawiri munthuyo akhoza kudziwika pomwe ali pansi, ndipo akhoza kutchedwa kusintha. Zosangalatsa, zopweteka, kapena mwina zingayende ndi kugonana. Monga momwe kumverera kungaperekedwe ndi mitsempha yomwe imatha kumalo a anal, pachimake chingathe kuchitidwa kupyolera mu kulowa mkati mwa kukakamizidwa kwa kansa yawo ya kansa ya prostate. Kafukufuku wochokera ku National Survey of Health and Behavior (NSSHB) adalangiza kuti amuna akuluakulu omwe amadziwika kuti ali ndi udindo wokhala ndi chilakolako chogonana pakati pa kugonana pakati pawo pomaliza anapeza kuti angathe kukhala nawo pamtanda ngati abambo akuluakulu omwe adalandila ntchito. Kufufuza kumaphatikiza anthu osakwatiwa pamene mkati mwa US akuwonetsa kuti mitengo yapamwamba imakhala yofanana pakati pa amuna akuluakulu okhudzana ndi kugonana. Ponena za kukhala osasamala pa kugonana, kufufuza kwina kukuwonetsa, chifukwa cha 24 peresenti ya 61 peresenti ya amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena amuna okhaokha, kugonana ndi abambo omwe amavomerezana nawo (kumatchedwa anodyspareunia) kungakhale moyo wamba pa nthawi yogonana. Mu chitsanzo chachikulu (n = ~ 25,000) cha amuna awiri akuluakulu a kugonana amuna ndi akazi ogonana amuna a ku America, pafupifupi 86 peresenti ya anthu omwe amadya mkati mwa chizoloŵezi chawo chogonana chakale adalongosola kulowetsa mu zochitika izi ngati kukhala wamng'ono kapena mwinamwake sungakhumudwitse; pafupifupi 5% amafotokoza bwino kwambiri kapena zovuta kwambiri.

Mnyamata wolowera pa zabwino angakhale wanu "pamwamba" ndipo Wokomvera mnyamata kumanzere adzakhala "pansi"

Malipoti Owona za chiwerewere cha kugonana limodzi la MSM Amasiyana ndi magawo ena, kupitirira zaka. Chiwerengero chachikulu cha anyamata amayamba kugonana. Kafukufuku wina wamwamuna wanena kuti kuchuluka kwake kuli kofanana pofufuza amuna omwe akufuna kuperekera okwatirana kwa anthu omwe angafune kukhala ogwirizana nawo. Amuna ena omwe amagonana ndi amuna amaganiza kuti abambo awo amafunsidwa mwa kukhalabe mnzawo weniweni pa nthawi yogonana.

Pali nsomba. Fort ingakhale mtundu wa ntchito zomwe zimaphatikizapo nthawi yomweyo kulankhula. Ndi mtundu wachisokonezo. Fort ingakhale yosangalatsa chifukwa nthawi yomweyi imayambitsa maukwati a mwamuna ndi mkazi wake popeza izi zimakana kusokoneza zotsutsana ndi frenulum guts phukusi pansi pa gawo lililonse la penile, pokhapokha pansi pa mkodzo (meatus) wa mutu wa mbolo (glans penis). Gender akadali mtundu wina wa amuna omwe angakhale nawo pakati pa MSM. Kusunga (kulembedwa kwa umuna wa munthu mmodzi mu chifuwa cha mnzake) kungathenso kuchitidwa.

Malo ogonana amatha kuchitidwa. Mu 1 kufufuza kwa UK Ndipo US akuyankha, ngakhale anthu azachuma omwe amadziwika kuti gay anafotokoza kalembedwe kake, mmishonale, 6 9, anal oral (mwa dongosolo ili) anali malo awo okonda kugonana. MSM ikhoza kuwonjezera pa BDSM kapena kugwiritsa ntchito zolaula. Kafukufuku woimira dziko lonse ku Australia ndi 2001 mpaka 2002 adapeza kuti, kuchokera ku masabata a 12 chisanakhale chisankho, 4.4percent ya amuna akuluakulu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi 14.2percent ya amuna ogonana omwe amagonana ndi abambo ogonana ndi abambo, komanso 19.2percent ya amuna achikulire omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. 36.4percent ya abambo ogonana ogonana omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito. Ofufuza omwe sali oimira, omwe amawafunsa mafunso okhudzana ndi mafunso okhudza mayiko a American koleji amadziwika kuti 24 peresenti ya amuna ogonana ndi amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amakumana ndi zochitika zomwe zimakhalapo chifukwa chokhala ndi chipatala. Pakati pa ana osokoneza bongo ku North America, 6 peresenti ya amuna akuluakulu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso 17 pa 100% a amuna akuluakulu achibadwidwe amasonyeza kuti akumva ululu chifukwa cha chisangalalo, pamodzi ndi 5 peresenti ya amuna achikulire ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndipo 9 pa zana la amuna ochimwa omwe amavomereza kuti akuyendera ntchitoyi. Malinga ndi kafukufuku wamakono a azungu akuluakulu a 25,000 omwe amadzinenera kuti ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, 49.8percent wagwiritsira ntchito zida zowononga. Amuna ambiri omwe adagwiritsa ntchito vibrator pamapeto omaliza kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa msinkhu (86.2percent). Atagwiritsidwa ntchito pazowonjezereka zowonjezereka, ogwedeza anali ataphatikizidwa ku zochitika zogonana (65.9percent) ndi kugonana (59.4percent).

Kafukufuku wopenda osakwatiwa Amuna ndi Akazi ku US akuwonetsa kuti Maseŵera a pachimake omwe amapeza ndi oyanjana omwe ali ovomerezeka ali ofanana pakati pa amuna akuluakulu okhudzana ndi kugonana. Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuti MSM ndi yowonjezereka kwambiri kuti ifike pochita zachiwerewere komanso amazindikira kuti amuna ndi abambo amatha kukhala okondwa makamaka ngati akugwiritsa ntchito mkazi kapena munthu wina yemwe ali naye pachikondi chachikulu. Zomwezo zinazindikiridwa pa chitsanzo choimira awo omwe amawadziwitsa ambiri a US (9 1% pakati pawokha).

Kuphatikizanso kugonana pogwiritsa ntchito amuna amtundu wa amuna, chiwerewere chimaphatikizapo kukulitsa anus.

Zoopsa zaumoyo

Chiwerengero cha matenda opatsirana pogonana (zotsatira za matenda opatsirana pogonana) chingabwere kuchokera ku ntchito. Padziko lonse lapansi, pafupifupi 5 - 10 peresenti ya matenda a HIV amayamba chifukwa amuna amachita kugonana ali ndi amuna akuluakulu. M'mayiko ambiri akumadzulo, matenda opatsirana kachirombo ka HIV atumizidwa ndi amuna ambiri kugonana ndi anyamata poyerekeza ndi njira iliyonse yopatsira anthu. Ku United States, amuna ndi akazi ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amadziwika kuti ndi 54 peresenti ya zochitika za HIV / AIDS ndi 67 peresenti ya kufufuza ku 2014. Mwa anthu a 5,164 omwe amadziwika kuti ali ndi HIV ku UK pa 20-16, anthu oposa 54 anali anyamata omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena amuna okhaokha. Nkhani yowonjezera ikucheperuka ku London monga tafotokozedwa ndi Public Health England ku 20 17. Lumikizanani chikondi cha syphilis onse anus, pafupi ndi diso, kapena malo a anal. Kubwerera ku 2006, peresenti ya 64 ya zochitikazo ku United States zinatha. Kuwonjezeka kwa chiwerengero cha syphilis pakati pa MSM chinawonetsedwa m'mayiko ena ambiri. Chiphuphu chimapanga madigiri a kachilombo ka HIV komanso mosiyana, ndipo chifukwa chake chisankho pamene mkati mwa US chapeza kuti theka la MSM ndi syphilis ali ndi HIV. Maphunziro ena a sayansi omwe akugwiritsa ntchito mayesero opindulitsa omwe awonetsa kuwonjezeka koteroko angatchulidwe kuti ali ndi chiwerengero chokwanira chogonana pogwiritsa ntchito kondomu imodzi ya MSM, komabe kusachepera kwa maphunziro ogwira ntchito ndi mayiko omwe akuyimira anthu onse akufufuzira njira za kugwiritsira ntchito makondomu pakati pa MSM kwawonjezeka, osati kuchepetsedwa, koma zaka 10 zapitazi, komanso pakhala kuchepetsa kuchepa kwa kugonana kwachiwerewere m'mbuyo mwachiwerewere cha MSM.

Zotsatira za chisankho cha US, HIV, warts, ndi syphilis zakhala zikufala pakati pa amuna omwe anagonana ndi amuna (MSM) Pafupi ndi Flip Side, Herpes ndi yofala pakati pa MSM kuposa pakati pa MSW. Chlamydia, munthu Gonorrhea, kachilombo ka Papilloma, ndi nsabwe sanazindikire kusiyana kulikonse.

Kugonana kwa wina ndi mzake ndi yemwe amadziŵa za kugonana. Kugonana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi kumatha kusinthasintha pa izi, kapena kumayanjana ndi amuna kumadzulo. Mabungwe onse ali ndi zizolowezi zogonana zomwe zingakhale maziko a chilengedwe cha wina aliyense payekha. Muzinthu zambiri, pali kusiyana kosavuta pakati pa ziwalo zogonana zomwe zidaperekedwa kwa akazi ndi abambo, kugonana kwa amuna ndi akazi omwe amamatira komanso kumakhala ndi chiyembekezo cha umuna ndi chikazi muzinthu zonse za kugonana ndi kugonana: kugonana kwachilengedwe, kugonana, komanso kugonana. Anthu ena nthawi zambiri sadziwa kuti amagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zina zokhudzana ndi kugonana kwaokha. Ambiri mwa anthuwa ndi osati, omwe ndi abambo kapena abambo. Mungapeze anthu angapo omwe ali ndi mitundu ya kugonana.

Era atatu. Pambuyo poika chidziwitso chachikulu cha kugonana kwa Era pafupi ndi zingapo, zimayesa kugawira, komanso zovuta kusintha zingabweretse kugonana kwa dysphoria. Zinthu ziwiri komanso zachilengedwe zimasonyeza kuti zimakhudza zolengedwa zake.

Zaka za chilengedwe

Pali malingaliro ochuluka okhudzana ndi kugonana Amitundu, komanso kufufuza zovuta ndizovuta kwambiri ngati ana akusowa mawu oyenerera amachititsa ochita kafukufuku kuti apange malo kuchokera ku umboni weniweni. John Money adalimbikitsa ana kuti atha kumvetsetsa, komanso kugwirizanitsa zokhudzana ndi kugonana, monga kale ngati masabata a 18 kwa zaka makumi khumi ndi ziwiri; Lawrence Kohlberg akuwonetsa kuti kugonana sikutengera mpaka zaka .Zavomerezedwa kuti zaka zimakhazikitsa chizindikiritso cha kugonana. Pa nthawiyi, ana akhoza kupanga malonda a bizinesi pazogonana komanso nthawi zambiri kuti asankhe zogwiritsa ntchito zomwe amakhulupirira kuti ndizoyenera kugonana kwawo monga chitsanzo chojambula ndi zidole za amayi, komanso magalimoto pamodzi ndi anyamata ovuta) ngakhale kuti nthawi zambiri sadziwa konse zotsatira za kugonana. Pambuyo pozindikiritsa amuna amsinkhu wovuta kugonana ndi kovuta kuti ayese ndikuyesa kugawira izo zingayambitse kugonana kwa dysphoria. Kukonzekera pakati pa kugonana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi kumapitirira kukhala wamkulu, ndipo amapita zaka makumi awiri.

Martin ndi Ruble amayang'anitsitsa njira iyi ya kukula Pakati pa magawo atatu: (inchi) monga ana ndi asukulu asanayambe, ana amadziwa za makhalidwe omwe akufotokozedwa, omwe angathe kuwerengedwera magawo a kugonana; (awiri) m'zaka za 5, 5 - zaka makumi asanu ndi ziwiri, zofanana zimagwirizanitsidwa ndipo zimakhala zolimba; (3) pamapeto pake kuti "chiwerengero cha kukhwima," kumatulutsa komanso kugwirizanitsa ntchito zogonana mofanana. Barbara Newman akugawa magawo anayi: (1) kumvetsa lingaliro la kugonana, (2) kumvetsetsa ntchito za kugonana, (3) kusiyana ndi mabwenzi, ndi (4) kupanga chilakolako cha kugonana.

Malingana ndi bungwe la United Nations, kukambirana za chiwerewere kumabweretsa chidziwitso monga kugonana komanso kugonana.

Chilengedwe motsatira kulera

Ngakhalenso kulengedwa kwa chidziwitso cha kugonana sizinthu zozindikirika zimasonyezedwa ngati zikukhudza kusintha kwake. Mwapadera, mfundo yomwe imadalira kwenikweni pa unyamata (mbali zachilengedwe) motsutsana ndi zochitika zenizeni ndizopitiriza kusagwirizana mu maganizo, omwe amatchedwanso "chikhalidwe motsatira". Zinthu ziwirizi zimakhulupirira kuti zimakhala ndi malo ofunikira. Tengani mahomoni a pre-android. Ngakhale kuti kugonana kumakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi maonekedwe, sizomwe zimapangidwira.

Zomwe anthu angagwirizane nazo Zomwe zingakhudze chidziwitso cha kugonana zikuphatikizapo Maganizo owona zochitika zogonana ndi amayi ndi ana, ziŵerengero zamagetsi, makina ambiri, komanso anthu ena amphamvu pa moyo wachinyamata. Pamene ana akuwonjezeka ndi anthu ambiri omwe amamatira ku maudindo ogonana, akhala akukonzekera kuchita chimodzimodzi, poyenerera chizindikiritso cha amuna ndi akazi ndi njira zonse zogonana. Chilankhulochi chimaphatikizapo gawo la ana, pamene akuphunzira mawu okha, awonetsetse momwe angagawanitse mphamvu ndi kusintha khalidwe lawo ku maudindo onse omwe adakonzeratu. Zomwe anthu amaphunzira pa chikhalidwe cha anthu zimasonyeza kuti ana awo amakula ndi khalidwe lawo la kugonana pogwiritsa ntchito kukopera ndi kuyang'ana makhalidwe okhudzana ndi kugonana, ndipo amapindula kapena kuwalangizidwa chifukwa chochita zimenezi, osapangidwanso ndi anthu omwe amawakumbatira ndikuyendera limodzi.

Chochitika chodziwika kwambiri kuchokera pa kukambirana kwachikhalidwe ndi kukambirana ndizochitika za David Reimer, kapena kuti "John / Joan." Monga mwana wamng'ono, Reimer anapeza mdulidwe, ataya mimba yake. Reimer anakwera ngati mkazi, atazungulira ndi ana aamuna komanso kuvala zovala zazing'ono, koma sanakhulupirire kuti anali mkazi. Anamuuza kuti anabadwa ali ndi ziwalo zoberekera amuna amtundu wina atatha kudzipha kuti adziphe m'zaka za 13. chiphunzitso chakuti zakuthambo sizinkafunikira kuchita zambiri ndi kugonana kapena kugonana.

Zinthu Zamoyo

Zambiri zoberekera monga majini ndi mahomoni, zimakhudza kugonana. Lingaliro la Bio Chemical lonena za kugonana limatanthauza kuti anthu amalandira chidziwitso cha kugonana pazinthu zosiyana zotsutsana ndi chikhalidwe.

Zotsatira ndi zovuta; Kugwiritsira ntchito kugonana kwa mahomoni kumapangidwira kuyambira nthawi yachinyamata yobadwa, komanso pamene ma hormonal kuchuluka kwasinthika, kukula kwa phenotype kungasinthidwe komanso, komanso maonekedwe a malingaliro awo pamtundu umodzi sungagwirizane bwino choloŵa chawo cha mimba yawo kapena ziwalo zake zoberekera kunja.

Mahomoni angakhudze kusiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi '

Anthu a ku Intersex

Pepala lofunsira pa phunziroli kuchokera ku 1955 - 2, 000 limasonyeza Kuti pa 1 mwa zana anthu akhoza kukhala ndi mbali iliyonse ya kugonana. Kusiyanitsa kwa pakati paokha kumakhala kovuta kugonana ndi ntchitoyi mwina mwinamwake sichigwirizana ndi id yonse ya kugonana kwa mwana. Kupititsa patsogolo ntchito zolimbana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi pa nthawi yamakono ndi opaleshoni idzaphwanya ufulu wa munthu.

Kafukufuku wa 2005 wokhudzana ndi kugonana kwa abambo a 46, amuna a XY omwe amagwiritsa ntchito erectile malungo agenesis, cloacae exstrophy ya abambo amphongo kapena ablation, anapeza kuti 78 peresenti ya malo awo osanthula anali amoyo monga azimayi, mmalo mwa 22 peresenti kuti anasankha kuyambitsa kusintha kwa amuna pakati pa amuna ndi abambo awo.

Nyuzipepala yofufuzira ya 2012 inapeza kuti zokhudzana ndi 8.5percent ndi 20 peresenti ya anthu omwe ali ndi mitundu yosiyana pakati pa kugonana ndi dysphoria. Kufufuza zachikhalidwe ku Australia, boma likugwiritsa ntchito gawo limodzi la magawo atatu la anthu omwe ali ndi HIV, likusonyeza kuti 19 peresenti ya amuna obadwa ndi zida zogonana amatha kusankha "X" kapena "zina", pamene 52 peresenti ndi atsikana, anyamata akuluakulu a 23, pamodzi ndi 6 peresenti ya bashful. Pakubwera, amuna khumi ndi atatu a 52 omwe amachokera poyesedwawa anapatsidwa akazi, ndipo a 41 peresenti anali nthumwi.

Kafukufuku wa Reiner & Gearhart amapereka chidziwitso kwa Zomwe zingachitike pamene ana aamuna omwe ali ndi mazira ochotsedwa amawapatsidwa azimayi ndi azimayi owonjezeka, mothandizidwa ndi "ndondomeko yabwino ya amayi" yomwe John Money adawapatsa: pa chitsanzo cha ana a 14, kutsata zaka za 5 ku 1 2 zinaonetsa kuti asanu ndi atatu omwe amapezeka ngati agogo aamuna, ndipo mitu yonseyi inali ndi zofuna zowonongeka, zomwe zimapereka chithandizo pa zokambirana zake zomwe zimakhudza kugonana pakati pa kugonana ndi khalidwe la achinyamata.

Zimayambitsa kugonana ndi oledzera

Chiwerengero cha Maphunziro Achita kafukufuku ngati alipodi kugwirizana pakati pa kugonana kwachinyengo kapena transgender pamodzi ndi zinthu. Malipoti atsimikiziranso zomwe zimagwirizanitsidwa bwino pogwiritsa ntchito kugonana kwawo komanso kuti maofesi a ubongo opatsirana pogonana amachokera ku zenizeni zomwe zimagwirizana ndi chibadwa chawo. Nthawi zina, bedi la mapepala a stria kapena BSTc (mbali ya chigawenga ichi cha ubongo omwe amachititsa kuti asungwana ndi asrogens) azimayi aakazi azifanana ndi azimayi amtundu wa amayi ndi ofanana ndi amuna. Mipata yofanana ya malingaliro imadziwikanso pakati pa amuna amodzi ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, komanso pakati pa akazi ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Kufufuza kwina kumatanthawuza kuti kugonana kwachisawawa kungakhale ndi gawo la cholowa.

Kafukufuku amatanthauzanso kuti mahomoni omwe amalimbikitsa Kusiyanitsa mu utero amakhala ndi zotsatira zake ndipo amachititsa kusintha kwa kugonana. Zambiri za mahomoni azimayi kapena abambo mkati mwa mwamuna kapena mkazi zingachititse kuti zisagwirizane ndi momwe amunawa amachitira m'mawa, komanso kuti wina akhale Behaving ndi kuwoneka ngati momwe amagonana.

Zachikhalidwe ndi zachilengedwe

(October 2010) (Phunzirani momveka bwino komanso ngati kuchotseratu nkhaniyi)

Mu 1955, John ndalama zinalimbikitsa kuti kugonana kwachisawawa kunali kosalekeza ndipo kudalira ngati mwana wachinyamatayo anabwezeretsedwa paunyamata monga wazimayi. Malingaliro a ndalama akhala atatulutsidwa, komabe, ophunzira akukhalapo tsopano kuti awonenso zotsatira za kusiyana kwa magulu a anthu. mkati mwa makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu makumi asanu ndi anayi mphambu khumi ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri mphambu makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu zisanu ndi ziwiri, monga mbali ya bambo, amayi amafuna mwana, ngakhale zina zowonjezera zokhazokha zomwe zimasonyeza kuti azimayi akuganiza za ubongo angagwirizane ndi chitukuko chofanana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi, adzalandira zizindikiro zodziwika bwino, pokhala ndi mndandanda wa 2004 kuti "umboni wotsimikizirika wa kufunika kwa chikhalidwe cha abambo pambuyo pa nthawi yobereka ukusowa." Kusanthula kwa 2008 kunaika amayi ndi abambo a ana sanaulule zizindikiro za mavuto.

Zatsimikiziridwa kuti malingaliro a mwana uyu ali ndi zizindikiro zenizeni, kudziwika kwa kugonana kwa mwana kungawathandize.

Chigawo cha maudindo ogonana

Bungwe la World Health Organisation silitonthoza kuti chiwerengero cha kugonana chikhale ngati china chofuna kukhala ndi ana omwe ali ndi malingaliro omwe angakhale oyenerera komanso oyenerera pazogonana komanso kumagonana. Mabuku atsopano amasonyeza kuti chizoloŵezi chodziwika ndi amuna kapena akazi ndi maudindo, monga kuyesa kwa sayansi ya mapulogalamu monga anyamata, akazi, kapena mopanda tsankho amatanthauza kuti amayi ndi mapulogalamu apamtundu mumasewero ambiri mofanana monga zidole zamakhitchini mopanda tsankho m'malo mwa akazi okhaokha, koma Emily Kane anapeza kuti ambiri achikulire ankachitira chifundo, pambali pa mayankho ku zinthu, ntchito, kapena makhalidwe omwe ankaganiziridwa kukhala azimayi, chithandizo, monga chitsanzo monga matalente. Kusanthula kwatanthawuza kuti ambiri achikulire amayesera kufotokozera kugonana kwa ana awo aang'ono mwanjira ina yomwe anawo aliri mchiberekero, '' pogwiritsa ntchito mawu a Kane omwe "ntchito yosamalira malire a ana awo amaimira zovuta zomwe zimalepheretsa anyamata kusankha, kulekanitsa anyamata ndi amayi, kuchita zinthu zowonetsera ngati akazi kwa anyamata ndi atsikana onse, motero kumalimbikitsa kusiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi komanso hetero normativity. "

Makolo amakondana ndi zomwe mnyamata kapena mtsikana wake amadziwidwiratu pokhapokha atabadwa. mwanayo amatha kukhala ndi zolinga, masewera, maseŵera, ndi dzina lochepa. Kamwana wanu atagonjetsedwa, abambo amawomboledwa mpaka lero, malinga ndi ngakhale mkazi kapena nthawi zonse mwamuna, kufanana ndi munthu kapena chiwerengero cha chiwerewere cha atsikana chomwe chafotokozedwa ndi anthu ambiri akale.

Poganiza za gulu la azimayi ndi zachuma, azimayi apamwamba, koma apakatikati omwe ali ndi "luso" maanja amalankhula za kugawikana kwa oyanjana ndi abambo ku Nursing ali ndi lingaliro lofanana.

Malingaliro

Mpaka lero iwo amagwiritsidwa ntchito mwanjira imeneyi, ophunzirira ochulukirapo amagwiritsira ntchito mawuwa kuti apeze malangizo kuchokera ku zogonana komanso magulu achiwerewere ogonana, amuna ndi akazi okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Mabuku oyambirira achipatala

Kumapeto kwa zolemba zachipatala za 19th, atsikana a World Health Organisation anasankha kuti asasinthidwe ndi maudindo awo omwe amayembekezeredwa kuti ndi azimayi omwe amatchedwa "ziphuphu", ndipo kuti iwo amafanizidwa kukhala ndi Ophatikiza mu chidwi cha Nursing mu chidziwitso ndi kuphunzira, komanso "osakonda ndi nthawi zina Kulephera kupempha zokakamizidwa. "Pakati pa zaka za pakati, madokotala anadandaula kuti asamalidwe ndi atsikana omwe adakali ana awo, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti khalidwe lachiwerewere lomwe silinali gawo lachilendo lidzasinthidwa ndi kusintha. kukakamiza achinyamata kubwerera ku "ntchito zawo zolondola" ndikuwongolera achinyamata ambiri a World Health Organization.

Mawonekedwe a Freud ndi Jung

Mu 1905, dokotala wa ubongo anapereka lingaliro lake la intogenesis mu 3 Essays pa lingaliro la kugonana, kupereka umboni kuti mu gawo loyambirira achinyamata sali kusiyanitsa pakati pa kugonana, komabe aganizire aliwonse ali ndi crotch ofanana ndi mphamvu zobereka. Pachifukwa ichi, adatsutsa kuti kugonana ndi chikhalidwe choyamba chogonana chomwe chimachititsa kuti anthu azigonana panthawi yonseyi. mogwirizana ndi matenda a ubongo, panthawi yonseyi, achinyamata adalumikizana mu chipatala cha Nursing kulikonse kumene iwo ankaganiza kuti kugonana kwa makolo kumatanthauza kuti ndizosiyana ndi chikhalidwe cha amayi ndi maganizo omwe makolo awo amawauza kuti ndizofanana ndi amuna, ndipo maganizowa adakonzanso (osadziwika) ) kudziwika ndi kholo lachipongwe World Health Organisation aliyense anapereka chitsanzo pofuna kukondweretsa chilakolako cha kugonana ndi kuopseza kuwononga mphamvu ya mwana kukondweretsa zilakolako za kugonana.In 1913, Jung anawonetsa complex Electra pamene aliyense ankakhulupirira kuti bisexuality sanagone pa chiyambi cha moyo wamaganizo, yemwe katswiri wa zamaganizo analephera kupereka ndondomeko yoyenera kwa mwana wamkazi (Freud anakana maganizo awa).

1950s ndi makumi asanu ndi anayi ndi makumi asanu ndi limodzi

Pazaka makumi asanu ndi anayi mphambu makumi asanu ndi anayi mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu (19) ndi '60s, akatswiri a zamaganizo anayamba kuphunzira za chikhalidwe cha achinyamata pakati pa achinyamata, makamaka pofuna kudziŵa kumene chiyambi cha kugonana (chomwe chinkaonedwa ngati chinyengo pa nthawiyo). Mu 1958, kufufuza kwaumwini kunakhazikitsidwa pakati pa UCLA pophunzira anthu okwatirana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Mtsogoleri Wachifumu Henry M. Robert Stroller anapeza zochitika zambiri za polojekitiyi m'buku lake la Sex and Gender: Pazochitikira Masculinity ndi mulibrity (1968). Amagwirizananso ndi kuika maganizo awo payekha ku International Psychotherapy Congress mumzinda wa Sweden, Kingdom of Sweden ku 1963. katswiri wasayansi John ndalama anali pothandizira palimodzi pakukula kwa ziphunzitso zoyambirira zaumwini. Ntchito yake pa chipatala cha Johns Hopkins Medical School (yomwe inakhazikitsidwa mu 1965) Yogwirizanitsa nawo mu Chidziwitso cha Chidziwitso cha Chidziwitso chaumwini, kutsimikizira kuti, kufikira msinkhu weniyeni, umoyo waumwini umakhala wofanana komanso umakhala wokambirana nthawi zonse. Buku lake la Man and girl, Boy ndi mkazi (1972) linagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri ngati buku la ku yunivesite, ngakhale kuti ndalama zambiri zakhala zikutsutsidwa.

Malingaliro a Butler

Kumapeto kwa zaka makumi asanu ndi anayi mphambu makumi asanu mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu, Judith wamasewera amayamba kuphunzitsa nthawi zambiri payekha, ndipo mu 1990, iye adawulula Gender Trouble: Chikazi ndi Kugonjetsedwa kwaumwini, poyambitsa chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe cha amuna ndi abambo omwe ali ndi chiwerengero adalengedwa.

Mawonedwe atsopano

Gawo lino likukhumba zowonjezereka kuti zitsimikizidwe. Chonde yesetsani kusintha mau awa powonjezera ziganizo kuzinthu zodalirika. Zopanda zosowa zingathetsedwenso ndi kuchotsedwa. (November 2015) (Phunziranibe koma nthawi imodzi kuchotsa uthenga wachitsanzo ichi)

madokotala

Monga za 2018, pali kusintha kwina kosasinthika ndi zatsopano zokhudzana ndi kuyamikira kosavuta kuthetsa kusagwirizana kwa amuna ndi akazi. Ogwira ntchito zamankhwala, mofanana monga Oyanjana mu Nursing akuwonjezereka mitundu yambiri ya ma fogeys, kawirikawiri sathandizira kapena amakhulupirira lingaliro la kutembenuka kwachipatala, chomwe tsopano chikudziwika kuti ndi chosayenera komanso chosagwira ntchito. Pakati pa Great Britain, mabungwe akuluakulu ndi ma psychotherapy, mofananamo chifukwa cha NHS, atsirizitsa kuti kutembenuka kwachipatala kuti 'athetsere' kugonana ndi koopsa ndipo ntchito ikuchitidwa kuonjezera udindo umenewu kuti ukhale nawo payekha.

Kumbali yotsutsana, palinso mazana ambiri odwala omwe akudwala World Health Organisation akukhulupirirabe kuti pakhale njira zothandizira achinyamata osagwirizana ndi amuna. Amakhulupirira kuti masewera ndi masewera omwe amatsutsana ndi abambo angalimbikitse achinyamata kuti azitsatira maudindo awo akale.

Anthu ogonana ndi amuna okhaokha omwe amagonana ndi amuna okhaokha amafunikanso kupirira opaleshoni ya thupi kuti apange chikhalidwe chawo chogonana, chikhalidwe chachiwiri, kapena zonse ziwiri, chifukwa chakumverera kuti adzakhala mosangalala kwambiri ndi crotch yosiyana. izi zikhoza kuphatikizapo kuchotsedwa kwa mamembala, ma thomba kapena mabere, kapena kulingalira kwa membala, makatani kapena mabere. M'mbuyomu, opaleshoni ya opaleshoni yachitsikana yapangidwa pa makanda a World Health Organization. Komabe, maganizo azachipatala omwe alipo tsopano akutsutsana kwambiri ndi njirayi, chifukwa akuluakulu angapo adandaula kuti awa amasankhidwa pa nthawi yoberekera. Masiku ano, opaleshoni yothandizira kugonana ikuchitidwa kwa iwo omwe akufuna kuti asinthidwe kotero kuti kugonana kwawo komweku kungafanane ndi iwo okha.

Mwa ife, mwamtheradi tinakhazikitsidwa pansi pa lamulo loyenera la chisamaliro kuti kusinthanitsa kwa inshuwalansi kungakhale nako kusinthasintha kophatikizapo chidziwitso cha anthu payekha ndi chidziwitso cha kugonana pogwiritsa ntchito mafunso okhwima, kuthandiza othandizira apamwamba kuzindikira zoyenera za gulu la LGBT.

Kusasinthasana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi komanso vuto laumwini

Kusagwirizana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi (omwe poyamba amatchedwa "matenda odziwika ndi kugonana" kapena GID mkati mwa DSM) ndikutanthauza kuti anthu akudziwika bwino kuti bungwe la World Health Organisation limapereka chidziwitso chofunikira (kusakhutira) ndi kugonana kumene iwo anapatsidwa pa kubadwa komanso / kapena maudindo okhudzana ndi kugonana : "Pa matenda a chiwerewere, pali kusiyana pakati pa kugonana kwanu ndi mwamuna kapena mkazi wa kunja komweko monga momwe munthu amagwirira ntchito pamaganizo a munthu monga chikazi kapena chachikazi" Kuzindikira ndi kugwiritsa ntchito masamu Buku la Mental Disorders (302.85) lili ndi mfundo zisanu ziyenera kupindula patsogolo pa Mgwirizanowo mu kufufuza kwa a Nursing za matenda okhaokha angakhale opangidwa ndi mafakitale, ndipo pokhapokha matendawa amapezeka kutali kwambiri ndi kufufuza koyang'ana pa nthawi, ngati matenda okhudza kugonana kwa ana (kwa ana a World Health Organisation akulimbana ndi matenda a chiwindi) .

Lingaliro la chidziwitso cha kugonana linayambira kuchokera ku Kuzindikira Ndipo limagwiritsidwa ntchito masamu Buku la Mental Disorders mu kusiyana kwake kwachitatu, DSM-III (1980), mwa mtundu wa mankhwala awiri kufufuza za kugonana kwa dysphoria: kugonana kwa chidziwitso cha unyamata (GIDC), pambali pa chikhalidwe (kwa achinyamata ndi achikulire). Bungwe la DSM-III-R, loyanjanitsidwa ndi chidziwitso cha Nursing: Kugonana ndi chidziwitso cha kugonana komanso kusankhidwa kwaunyamata. Chizindikiro ichi chinali 1987st chochotsedwanso mkati mwa kukonzanso kwina, '' DSM-IV (1), yomwe inagwera GIDC ndipo inagwirizananso ndi chidziwitso chatsopano cha matenda aumwini. Mu 1994, DSM-2013 imatchulidwa kusadziwika kwa kugonana ndi kubwereza malingaliro ake.

Olemba nyuzipepala ina ya 2005 amatsutsana ndi Machitidwe a zovuta zokhudzana ndi kugonana zomwe zimayambitsa matenda a maganizo. Zomwezo zotsitsimula za DSM zikhoza kuti zakhala zikugwiritsidwa kale pa maziko pomwe magulu omwe adawombera kuti athetse kugonana. Izi zikupikisana ndi Ambiri Okhudzidwa a Othandizira Othandizira Amaganizo amavomereza pambali potsatira zotsatira zonse za DSM.

Malamulo apadziko lonse a ufulu wa anthu

Malamulo a Yogyakarta, omwe amalembedwa pang'onopang'ono pulogalamu ya malamulo apadziko lonse a ufulu waumunthu, amapereka kuchokera ku chithunzi choyambirira cha chidziwitso cha kugonana monga chifukwa cha munthu aliyense yemwe amadziwonekera kwambiri mkati mwake ndi momwe anthu amachitira zogonana, zomwe zingakhale zosiyana ndi zonse Mwamuna ndi mkazi amauzidwa mmawa, monga chitsanzo, anthu amadziwa kuti ali ndi vuto labwino (lomwe lingaphatikizepo, ayenera kusankhidwa mwankhanza, kusintha kwa thupi kapena ntchito zachipatala, opaleshoni kapena njira zosiyanasiyana) pokhapokha ponena za kugonana, monga zovala , adilesi ndi chizoloŵezi. Lamulo lachitatu likunena kuti "Munthu aliyense wodziwa yekha kuti ndiwemwini ndi wofunika kwambiri pazochita zawo ndipo ndi chimodzi mwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri payekha, kudzilemekeza komanso ufulu. Mfundo khumi ndi zisanu ndi zitatu imati" Ngakhale zilizonse zosiyana, Kugonana kwa munthu payekha komanso kudziwika kwake, sikoyenera, kuchiritsidwa kapena kuponderezedwa. "Chifukwa cha ndondomeko yeniyeni," Malingaliro Amilandu a Malamulo a Yogyakarta "adapeza kuti" Gender identity zosiyana ndi zomwe zidaperekedwa pa kubadwa, kapena kukanidwa pakati pa amuna ndi akazi, zimatengedwa monga mtundu wa maganizo. Kugonjetsedwa kwa chikhalidwe kumakhala ndi zowunikira kwa ana ndi amuna omwe akugonana ndi amuna ndi akazi omwe amamangika m'maganizo, ndipo amatsata njira zotsutsa - komanso electroshock - monga 'kuchiza'. "" Mfundo za Yogyakarta mu Ntchito "zimati" Chofunikira kwambiri kuzindikira kuti ngakhale kuti "kugonana" sikunayende bwino m'mayiko ambiri, 'kudziwika kwa kugonana' kapena 'kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi' nthawi zambiri kumakhalabe mukuganiza. "Mfundo izi zinakhudza chilengezo cha United Nations pankhani yogonana ndi kugonana paokha Mu 2015, chizindikiritso cha kugonana chinali chimodzi mwa milandu ya Khoti Lalikulu. Pakati pa nthawi yomwe tinatchedwa Oberg inagwa mu Hodges mu mgwirizano wonsewu munali pakati pa akazi ndi amuna.

Zosagonana zogonana

Mipingo yochepa, ndipo enafe sitimangogonana ngati A binary kulikonse kumene angakhale mnyamata kapena mayi, kapena mwinamwake mwamuna kapena mwinamwake mkazi. Pewani pansi pa ambulera zinthu zopanda malire kapena mwinamwake zolekeza. Mitundu ina imakhala ndi maudindo apadera ogonana omwe angakhale osiyana ndi "mwamuna" ndi "mkazi." za malowa omwe amatchedwa abambo atatu.

Fafafafine

M'madera ena a ku Polynesia, ngakhale fa'afafine dera lomwe limayesedwa kukhala kugonana. iwo kwenikweni ndi abambo, koma zovala ndi kumachita pa fashoni yotchedwa akazi. Monga momveka bwino ndi Tamasailau Sua'ali (onani maumboni), fa'afafine ku Samoa malo osachepera a malo omwe nthawi zambiri sangathe kubereka. Kutanthauziridwa pafupifupi, fa'afafine amatanthawuza "kuchokera kuzimayi"

Hijras

Muzinthu zina za Civilizations za Asia, hijra imatengedwa kukhala munthu kapena mtsikana. Ochepa ndi akazi, ngakhale Ambiri ali amuna kapena intersex. Ntchito ya kugonana imapangidwa ndi Ngakhale hijra, ngakhale kuti sakhala okondwa ndendende ndi chivomerezo ndi ulemu kuchokera kwa amayi ndi abambo omwe akukhala nawo. Amatha kuyendetsa mabanja awo, komanso ntchito zawo ndi kuvina ndipo onse akuimba tsopano, akugwiritsa ntchito amuna achikulire monga antchito kapena akuphika mahule, kapena ngakhale okwatirana. Hijras ikhonza kukhala yosiyana ndi oyendetsa abambo kapena operekera chitukuko cha masiku ano.

Khanith

Ngakhale Khanith adavomereza kugonana ku Oman. Ngakhale khanith ndi amuna omwe ali ndi gay Amakhalidwe omwe galasi lakuvala ndilo anthu ambiri, kuphatikizapo mitundu yowala (m'malo oyera, opangidwa ndi anyamata), ngakhale machitidwe awo achikazi. Khanith ndi atsikana akhoza kusonkhana Nthawi zambiri amachita maukwati kapena zochitika zina. Khanith ali ndi mabanja awo omwe, amachita zonse (mkazi ndi mwamuna). Komabe kwa Amuna Khaniths, m'mabanja awo ndipo akazi akhoza kukwatirana, kusonyeza umuna wawo mwa Kugwiritsa ntchito mgwirizano. Ngati kuchoka kapena kusudzulana kukuchitika, anyamatawa akhoza kubwerera kuchokera ku khaniths muukwati ku tsiku lawo laumwini. Zili ziwiri

maudindo a amuna. Zomwe zili m'gulu la amai ndi abambo, kumbali ya mbali ya cisgender mwamuna ndi dona, gawo lomwe panopa limagwiritsidwa ntchito palimodzi limatchedwa "Mizimu iwiri" kapena "mizimu iwiri." Kumeneko kumakhala zigawo zikuluzikulu zamagulu zomwe zimatenga "TwoSpirit" monga kalasi ponena za chidziwitso chodziwika, pofuna kuona ndi chikhalidwe kapena mtundu wa mtundu wina wa chikhalidwe:

  • Kugonana
  • Nyama zopanda anthu

Nyama Mchitidwe wogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha m'banja (mndandanda)

Gulu la gulu

vte

Ubale pakati pa biology ndi kugonana kungakhale nkhani yofufuza. pamene asayansi samvetsa chifukwa chomwe chimachititsa kugonana, amakhulupirira kuti kusakanikirana kwa majini, mahomoni, ndi zachikhalidwe kumatsimikiziranso izo.Zopangitsanso kuti zotsatira za chikhalidwe chogonana pambuyo pobereka zimakhala zofooka, makamaka kwa amuna.

Mafotokozedwe a zamoyo pofotokozera zomwe zimayambitsa kugonana komwe kumakhala kovomerezeka ndi asayansi ndikuphatikizapo kugwirizana kwa ma genetic, chiwalo choyamba cha chiberekero cha ubereki ndi zochitika za ubongo. Zinthu izi, zomwe zingagwirizane ndi zochitika za kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapena ma agamid, magulu a majeremusi, mahomoni amtundu, ndi ubongo.

Maphunziro aŵiri

Kafukufuku wambiri amayesera kufanana ndi kufunika kwa sayansi ya chilengedwe ndi malo ozungulira kugonana. Phunziro la 1991, Bailey ndi Pillard adaphunzira za mapasa aamuna omwe anawatenga kuchokera ku "mabuku apanyumba", ndipo amapezeka kuti abale makumi asanu ndi anayi (a) makumi asanu ndi anayi (9) anafunsidwa) ndipo makumi awiri ndi awiri mwa magawo makumi asanu ndi awiri (2) a maphunzilo (DZ) "MZ" amasonyeza mapasa ofanana omwe ali ndi maselo ofanana omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito 'DZ' amasonyeza mapasa apachibale kulikonse kumene majini amagawanika mofanana ndi a abale osapasa ana awiri. a mapasa, ofufuza anapeza pakati pa nkhani zawo zazikuluzikulu zamwamuna zomwe zimagwiritsira ntchito concordance mlingo wa kugonana kwa makumi asanu ndi limodzi ndi asanu ndi limodzi pakati pa mapasa a monozygotic ndi theka la ola limodzi pakati pa mapasa odyera. Mu 2000 Bailey, Dunne ndi Martin anaphunzira zitsanzo zinayi zazikuru, mapasa a 901 a Australia Amanenanso kuti 0.5 chiwerengero cha concordance. Amapeza mazana awiri pakati pa amuna amphongo ofanana kapena a MZ ndi mapepala oyera a golide omwe ali amodzi kapena azimayi a MZ. Kukopa, malingaliro ndi makhalidwe adayesedwa ndi mawonekedwe komanso zygosity zinkayang'anitsidwa nthawi yomweyo. ochita kafukufuku osiyanasiyana amathandiza kuti amuna ndi akazi azigonana.

Bearman ndi Bruckner (2002) anadzudzula maphunziro oyambirira akuwongolera pazing'ono, kusankha zosankhidwa ndi osankhidwa awo osankhidwa. Anaphunzira awiri awiri awiri a mapasa awiri omwe ali ndi mapasa ofanana (monozygotic, kapena dzira losakanizidwa) ndi awiri awiri a mapasa awiri a 289 (dizygotic, kapena ochokera ku 495 mazira) ndipo amodzi omwe ali ndi chiwongoladzanja cha kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha.2% kwa amphongo ofanana ofanana ndi zisanu.7% kwa akazi, chitsanzo chimene amati "sichidzatanthawuza kuti munthu ali ndi chikoka cholowa mwa munthu aliyense."

Kafukufuku wa 2010 wa mapasa onse akuluakulu ku dziko la Scandinavia (oposa asanu ndi awiri, amphongo a 600) adapeza kuti khalidwe lofanana ndiloli linayankhidwa ndi zinthu zonse zomwe zinalengedwa ndi magwero ena omwe ali ndi malo (monga ante partum environment, luso labwino, komanso magulu a anzako, ndi zochitika zogonana), pamene zisonkhezero za zosiyana za chilengedwe monga zozungulira za banja ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu zinali ndi zofooka, ngakhale zofunikira zedi. Atsikana anasonyeza kuti chikhalidwe chosawerengeka chimachititsa kuti anthu asalandire cholowa chawo, pamene amuna sankakhudzidwa ndi zotsatira za chilengedwe. ntchito ya mapasa onse akuluakulu ku dziko la Scandinavia inalinganizidwa kuthana ndi kutsutsa maphunziro odzipereka, pomwe pangakhale mwayi wotsatizana ndi mapasa a amuna okhaokha.

Zojambula za biometric zapeza kuti, mwa amuna, zotsatira za chibadwa zanenedwa .34 -. 39 ya kusiyana kwa kugonana, malo omwe ali nawo .00, komanso malo ena enieni .61 -. 66 ya kusiyana. Mawerengero ofanana pakati pa atsikana anali .18 -. 19 chifukwa cha majini, .16 -. 17 kwa chilengedwe chofanana, ndi .64 -. 66 kwa zinthu zosiyana zachilengedwe. ngakhale kuti nthawi yayitali ikudandaulira kutanthauzira mosamala, zotsatira zake zimakhala zofanana, zomwe zimayambitsa maumwini, zowonongeka, komanso zowonongeka za zochitika zogonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Zotsutsa

Kafukufuku wamaphunziro awiri adalandira zotsutsana zosiyanasiyana komanso zosankha zosankha zokhazokha pokhapokha ngati amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ali ndi ana aakazi ammudzi omwe amatha kuchita nawo maphunziro. Momwemonso, n'zotheka kuganiza kuti, posiyanitsidwa ndi kugonana m'magawo ambiri a mapasa ofanana, kugonana sikungagwiritsidwe ntchito kotheratu ku ziwalo za chibadwa.

Vuto lina ndilo kuti posachedwapa kupeza kuti ngakhale mapasa a monozygotic akhoza kukhala osiyana kwambiri ndipo pali njira yomwe ingayang'anire mapasa a monozygotic kukhala osagwirizana ndi chiwerewere. Gringas ndi Chen (2001) amalongosola njira zosiyanasiyana zomwe zingayambitse kusiyana pakati pa mapasa a monozygotic, chomwe chiri chofunikira kwambiri pano kukhala chorionicity ndi chidani. Mapasa a dichorionic mosakayikira amakhala ndi malo osiyana kwambiri a kusungunuka chifukwa cha kulandira magazi a amayi m'magawo osiyana, ndipo izi zingathe kutha msinkhu wosiyana wa ubongo. Mono amniotic mapasa amagawira malo obisala, komabe adzavutika ndi 'matenda awiri opatsirana m'magazi' pamene mphasa imodzi "imakhala yodzaza ndi magazi komanso yowonongeka mosiyana".

Maphunziro a kugwirizana kwa chromosome

Maphunziro a kugonana kwa chromosome za kugonana asonyeza kukhalapo kwa zinthu zambiri zowonongeka za chibadwa nthawi yonseyi. Mu 1993 Dean Hamer ndi ogwira nawo ntchito adawululira zotsatira za kugwirizanitsa zitsanzo za abale ndi alongo makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu asanu ndi awiri. Hamer et al .. anapeza kuti amuna achiwerewere anali ndi abambo ambiri aamuna ndi abambo awo pachimake cha amayi awo kuposa momwe amachitira abambo awo. Gay Abale United Nations bungwe la United Nations linasonyeza kuti amayiwa akuyesa kugonana kwa chromosome, kuzunzidwa makumi awiri ndi awiri pa chromosome yokhudza kugonana kuti ayang'anire alleles ofanana. Kupeza kwina, kakhadini wa ana awiri aakazi awiri omwe anayesedwa anapeza kuti ali ndi zofanana zofanana m'dera la distant Xq28, lomwe linali lalikulu kwambiri kuposa chiyembekezero cha makumi asanu kwa abale a abale. Sanders et al. Pa 1998 analemba mu phunziro lawo, pozindikira kuti maulendo khumi ndi atatu a abambo a amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe ali pachigwirizano anali amtundu wankhanza, poyerekeza ndi pc sikisi pa zotsatira zosiyana

Zotsatira za Hu et al. inabweretsanso zomwe mwapeza posachedwa. Kufufuza sikungatheke kuti makumi asanu ndi awiri mphambu asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) asanu ndi awiri (7) za kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha pamsewu wa anyamata achiwerewere. Kufufuza koyamba ndi Rice et al. pa 28.2 sankatha kubereka bwino chithandizo cha Xq1999. Kufufuza mozama za deta zonse kumaphatikizapo mgwirizano ku Xq2000, komabe, kuwonjezeranso kuti ma enzyme ayenera kufotokoza kwa makanema kwathunthu chifukwa choyenerera kugonana.

Mustanski et al. (2005) ankachita kujambulira (osati kungopanga chromosome yokhudza kugonana) pa anthu komanso mabanja omwe amamveka phokoso ku Hamer et al. (1993) ndi Hu et al. (1995), kuphatikizapo kumadera osiyana atsopano. Kuti sanagwirizane ndi Xq28.

Zotsatirapo Zowonjezera Mipingo Yambiri Yomwe Ili Yonse Yophatikiza Kafukufuku wotsutsa anafunsa kuti kugwirizanitsa kugonana kwa American Society of Human Genetics ku 2012. Kuwunika kwawo kuli anthu awiri a 409, '' omwe adafufuzidwa pamwamba pa ma polymorphism markers. Nkhaniyi inachititsa chidwi kwambiri ndi zotsatira za Hamer's Xq28 zomwe zimadziwika ndi TwoPoint limodzi ndi mapu ambiri (MERLIN) LOD mapping mapping. Kugwirizanitsa kunapezedwa ndi ochepa pakati pa malo omwe anapeza kuchokera ku ndondomeko yonse ya ma laboratoire ya Hamer. Malingaliro ogonana samawoneka kuti akugwirizana ndi Xq28, ngakhale kuti sichidzawoneka kuti akubadwa.

Kuphatikizapo zomwe zingatheke, kuti zopereka zapakati pazinthu zogonana zikuthandizira kusintha kwazomwekupitirizabe kusonyeza. Pa lipoti limene anthu ambiri amapanga oposa 7000, '' Ellis et al. (2008) anapeza kusiyana kwakukulu kwa chiwerengero cha magazi. A pakati pa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Kuonjezera apo adapeza kuti "chiwerengero chapamwamba" cha amuna achiwerewere ndi anyamata achiwerewere anathetsa Rh drawback kusiyana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Popeza mtundu wa magazi ndi mtundu wa Rh ndiwo makhalidwe omwe amachokera ku alleles pogwiritsa ntchito chromosome 9 ndi chromosome inchi kusanthula kumatanthauza kugwirizana pakati pa majini pazokhazikika komanso kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Kafukufuku wokhudzana ndi kugonana Anasanthuledwa mu Zambiri Zambiri Mu njira zambiri zodyera zinyama. Pa ntchentche yobiriwira ya Drosophila melanogaster, chidziwitso chonse cha kugonana kwa ubongo komanso makhalidwe omwe amachititsa amadziwika bwino mwa amuna ndi akazi, komanso amapereka chidziwitso chokwatira chibwenzi. M'zinyamuna, gulu la akatswiri a zamoyo ku Korea Advanced Institute of Science ndi Technology linasintha chilakolako cha kugonana kwa makoswe aakazi kuchotsa imodzi yokha yogwirizana ndi khalidwe la kubala. Manyowa ankasonyeza kukondweretsa ndi khalidwe la kugonana kwa tsamba la mbewa zomwe zinali zina. Anthu omwe ankasunga ndondomeko yolandira mankhwalawa (FucM) anali atabweretsedwa ku mbewa.

Pofunsidwa mafunso muzofalitsa, zomwe zatsimikiziridwa ndi akatswiri ofufuza a Hereditary 'umboni sayenera kukhala ofanana ndi determinism. Monga tafotokozera ndi Dean Hamer komanso Michael Baileyattributes ndi chimodzi mwa zifukwa zambiri zogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Kubwerera ku 20 17, Chilengedwe chinasindikiza positi pogwiritsa ntchito gulu la mtundu wa genome kusanthula za kugonana. Phunziroli liri ndi amuna komanso amuna akuluakulu. Pulogalamu yotchedwa SLITRK6 pa chromosome 1 3 yatsimikiziridwa, imaphatikizapo malo kapena DNA yomwe ili yosiyana kwambiri ndi amuna kuposa akuluakulu. Kufufuzako kumatsimikizira kufufuza kwachiwiri komwe kunachitika ndi Simon Levay. Kufufuza kwa Levay kunasonyeza kuti hypothalamus ya amuna imasiyana ndi amuna. SLITRK6 imakhala yotanganidwa kuchokera mu ubongo wa pakati pomwe kwenikweni hypothalamus akadali. Ofufuzawo anapeza kachilombo kena kamene kamatchedwa "chithokomiro cholimbikitsa maselo a hormone receptor" (TSHR) pa chromosome 14 kuti dongosolo la dna limasiyana ndi kuwonjezera pa amuna omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. TSHR imadzutsa chithokomiro komanso vuto la manda linasokoneza gawo la TSHR. anapeza kuti amuna omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha si amuna okhaokha. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti anthu adachepetsa thupi. Zinkaganiza kuti TSHR hormone inachepetsa thupi.

Kafukufuku wa Epigenetic

Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuyanjana kwa chibadwa Kupanga mayi Kuphatikizana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Atsikana ali ndi ma X chromosomes, omwe amatha "kusinthidwa." Ngakhale kusokonezeka kwa X chromosome kumachitika mwachisawawa m'mimba mwa bere, zomwe zimapangitsa maselo omwe angapangidwe mosavuta ndi omwe chromosome akadali otanganidwa. Zikuoneka kuti kusintha kwapadera kumachitika mwa njira. Bocklandt et al. (2006) amalemba izi, mwa amayi a amuna okhaokha, amuna amitundu yosiyanasiyana amagwiritsa ntchito kwambiri mankhwala a X chromosome. amene ali ndi mwana wamwamuna wokwatirana ndi amuna okhaokha, komanso 13 peresenti ya amayi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito ana awiri okhaokha amuna okhaokha, amasonyeza kuti sagwedezeka kwambiri, poyerekezera ndi 23 peresenti ya amayi omwe alibe ana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Birth Order

Blanchard ndi Klassen (1997) Anawona kuti zina zonse Zowonjezera kufotokozera izi, zakhala zikuperekedwa kuti fetus amuna amasangalala ndi mayankho a chitetezo cha chitetezo cha mthupi omwe amakhala ovuta kwambiri ndi iliyonse yotsatizana. Mayi achiberekero a MIH amayamba pamene maselo a m "mimba amawunikira amayi pamene ali ndi pakati kapena pamene ali ndi mimba. Mapuloteni onsewa omwe ali ndi Y sangamvetseke kuchokera kwa amayi omwe amateteza njira zawo zowatetezera monga momwe alili azimayi, motero amamupangitsa kuti apange mankhwala omwe angapitirize kupweteka kwa chipinda cham'mimba. Mwachidziwitso, ziwalo zotsutsana ndi amuna zikhoza kudutsa mliri wa magazi / ubongo (BBB) ​​wa ubongo uwu wochuluka wa fetus, kotero kusintha malingaliro a kugonana-dimorphic malingana ndi kugonana, kotero kukulitsa mwayi mwana wosavutika mosakayika mosakayikira atakopeka ndi anyamata poyerekeza ndi akazi. Ndizomwe antigen amakhulupirira kuti mankhwala a mayi a HY aperekedwa kuti athe 'kukumbukira'. Amuna omwe amatha kubereka amatha kupwetekedwa ndi HY Mafakitale omwe amachepetsa mphamvu za ma antigen kuti achite mwambo wawo wachikhalidwe m'maganizo.

Matenda a amayi omwe amatenga kachilombo ka HIV Amatsutsidwa Monga momwe zimakhalire zovuta zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mozizwitsa zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri pogwiritsa ntchito chikhalidwe cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Ngakhale "chikhalidwe cha kubadwa kwachibale" komabe, sizingatheke kuwerengera pakati pa 71-85percent ya mwamuna gay kukonda. Kuwonjezera apo, sichifotokozera nthawi yomwe mwana woyamba kubadwa amasonyeza kukoma mtima kwa amuna amodzi (MHP).

Kubwerera ku 2017, kuti makina anapezeka ndi Asayansi a. Iwo amaganiza kuti Neuroligin 4 Y yowonjezera mapuloteni ndi odalirika kuti athandize mwana wamwamuna kuti azigonana. Kuonjezerapo, iwo adapeza kuti akazi onsewa adakumana ndi madigiri akuluakulu a NLGN4Y. Zotsatira zake zimasonyezanso kuti kubereka kwa amayi ambiri, makamaka amayi omwe ali ndi akazi okalamba, amawona kuti ali ndi madigiri akuluakulu oposa NLGN4Y poyerekeza ndi mayesero olamulira a amayi, mwachitsanzo amayi a ana aang'ono.

Kubala kwa akazi

Kubwerera ku 2004, ofufuza a ku Italy anafufuza kafukufuku wa anthu pafupifupi 4,600 omwe akhala akugonana amuna ndi akazi a 98 ndi amuna omwe ali ndi 100 okondedwa awo. Maubwenzi apabanja a amuna achikulirewa ankakhala ndi ana ochulukirapo poyerekeza ndi omwe anali ndi amuna awo. Ubale wamtundu wa anyamata achichepere mwa amayi amtunduwu umakhala ndi ana ochulukirapo poyerekeza ndi anthu ozungulira abambo. Ofufuzawo anaganiza kuti panthawiyi, mankhwalawa amatenga kachilombo ka chromosome kamene kamalimbikitsa chonde kuchokera kwa mayi komanso kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha pakati pa mwamuna wake. Zomwe anapeza zikhoza kufotokozera pafupifupi 20 peresenti yazochitikazo, kuyesa kuti ndizofunikira kwambiri, komabe mwina sizowona kuti zenizeni zomwe zimakhudza kugonana.

Kafukufuku wa Pheromone

Kafukufuku Wochitidwa ku Sweden wasonyeza ndipo Olungama anyamata amavomereza mosiyana ndi fungo ziwiri zomwe amaganiziridwa kuti azichita nawo chiwerewere. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti ngati anyamata kapena akazi ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ali pachiopsezo ku testosterone yolandira mankhwala omwe amapezeka mu thukuta la amuna aakulu, malo ochokera ku hypothalamus ayambitsidwa. Amuna ogonana ndi amuna okhaokha, kumbali ina, amakhala ndi zotsatira zogwirizana ndi mankhwala a estrogen omwe amapezeka mumkodzo wa amayi. Mapeto ndi chakuti kukonda kugonana, ngati kugonana komweko kapena kugonana komweko, kumagwira ntchito mofananamo. Asayansi atsimikizira kuti izi zingatheke kufufuzidwa pofufuza madera aang'ono kuti adziwe ngati zotsatira zofanana mkati mwa hypothalamus zikhoza kukhalapo pambuyo pake zomwe zimagwirizanitsa zolembazi pogwiritsa ntchito chiwerewere chokhwima.

Kafukufuku wa malingaliro

Zambiri za malingaliro amenewa zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zogonana; Izi ndizosiyana pakati pa amayi ndi abambo. Kuwonjezera apo, palinso ndemanga za mafotokozedwe mkati mwa ubongo zomwe zimaphatikizapo kutsogolo. Kubwerera ku 1990, Dick Swaab komanso Michel A. Hoffman analemba kuti pali kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa anthu achiwerewere ndi amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Mu 1992, '' Allen ndi Gorski adanena kuti pali kusiyana pakati pa chiwerewere chokwanira ndi chikhalidwe chawo, ngakhale kuti kafukufuku adatsutsidwa ndi akatswiri ambiri ochita kafukufuku, 1 omwe adawona kuti zonsezi zinali chifukwa cha chinthu chimodzi.

Fufuzani za kusiyana kwa thupi. Ubongo umachokera ku lingaliro lakuti anthu ali ndi malingaliro aakazi kapena amuna, ndipo izi zikuwonetsanso kusiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi a 2. Ofufuza ena akunena kuti chithandizo chokhazikika pa izi sizingatheke pakalipano. Ngakhale kuti mipata imapezeka, kuphatikizapo ubongo wawo komanso ubongo wa malo a ubongo ndi ofanana kwambiri.

Maganizo ogonana pogonana mu hypothalamus anterior

Simon LeVay, nayenso, anachita zina mwa kufufuza. Iye anafufuza magulu anayi a odzipereka pa hypothalamus omwe amatchedwa INAH1, INAH2, INAH3 komanso INAH4. Ichi chakhala chofunikira kwambiri mmaganizo kuti chiphunzire chimachita mbali pa lamulo la khalidwe komanso popeza INAH2 ndi INAH3 zakhala zikuwonetseratu kuti sizigwirizana pakati pa akazi ndi abambo.

Nzeru zinamupeza kuchokera kwa anthu odwala matenda a 4 1 omwe adafa. Ngakhalenso Mituyi inagawidwa m'magulu atatu. Ophunzirawo anaphatikiza amuna a 1 9 omwe anafa ndi matenda okhudzana ndi AIDS. Gulu. Amuna asanu ndi awiri a iwo anali atatha kufa ndi matenda a Edzi. Gululi lakhala la atsikana a 6. Ena mwa amayi ambiri anali atatha kufa ndi matenda okhudza Edzi.

Amuna ndi Akazi omwe ali ndi kachilombo ka HIV m'mabungwe odwala matenda osakwatirana amadziwika kuyambira m'mabuku okhudzana ndi zochitika zachipatala A Mwamuna ndi mkazi Wokondedwa Ngati akugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha atakana kugonana. Ngakhale zolemba za mitu imeneyi zomwe zinalibe malangizo pazogonana zawo.

LeVay sanapeze zizindikiro kuti apeze kusiyana pakati pa makalasi Pa kukula kwa INAH1, INAH2 kapena INAH4. Komabe, kuti gulu la INAH3 likuwoneka kuti likhale lalikulu chifukwa kuchokera mu gulu; komabe kusiyana kwake kunali kofunikira, komanso kunakhalabe kwakukulu ngati anthu a 6 AIDS anali ndi gululo. Ukulu wa INAH3 kuchokera mu ubongo wa amuna unali wofanana ndi ukulu wa INAH3 kuchokera ku ubongo wa akazi.

Komabe, kufufuza kwina kwawonetseratu Pachiyambi cha dera loyambirira, monga momwe INAH3, kotero ndilokulingana kwakukulu mwa amuna omwe anafa ndi Edzi kwa amuna, ndipo ndi ochuluka kuposa azimayi. Izi zikusonyeza lingaliro lakuti anthu ali ndi hypothalamus. Zowonjezerapo, SCN ya amuna achiwerewere ndi yaikulu kwambiri (voliyumu komanso osiyana-siyana odzipereka akhala akuwirikiza mochulukirapo mwa amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha). Malo onsewa a hypothalamus sanafufuzidwe kuchokera kwa akazi omwe anali amuna achiwerewere kapena akazi. Ngakhale kuti zotsatira za zotsatira za zofukufukuzi sizinafotokozedwe mwatsatanetsatane, motero amaponyanso funso lalikulu m'maganizo a Dörner omwe amadziwika kuti amuna amasiye ali ndi "female hypothalamus" komanso njira yosiyanitsira ndendende "ubongo wamwamuna kuyambira pachiyambi ubongo wazimayi "ukhoza kukhala kuti zotsatira za epigenetic za testosterone mkati mwa embryonic improvement.

William Byne ndi ogwira nawo ntchito anayesa Kuzindikira ndendende kuti miyeso yosiyana yolembedwa ndi INAH inch --4 mwa kukopera kuyesera pogwiritsa ntchito zitsanzo zochokera m'madera osiyanasiyana: 14 amuna ogonana amuna okhaokha, 3 4 amakhulupirira amuna amodzi omwe ali ndi kachilombo ka HIV (10 HIV) , komanso 3 4 amakhulupirira kuti amayi amodzi (9 HIV). Kusiyana kwakukulu kunawonedwa ndi ofufuza m'zinthu za INAH3 pakati pa amuna ndi akazi. Ngakhalenso INAH3 mbali ya anyamatawa anali osiyana kwambiri poyerekeza ndi amuna achikulire omwe ali ndi zibwenzi, omwe amaposa akazi omwe akugonana amuna okhaokha, komabe palibe kusiyana kwakukulu komweku.

Byne ndi ogwira nawo ntchito anawerengera ndi kuyeza chiwerengero cha Ophunzira mu INAH3 mayeso omwe sanawatengere kunja ndi LeVay. Zotsatira za INAH3 thupi limodzi zinali ngati anthu a INAH3 dimension; ichi ndi INAH3 mtolo kwa ubongo wake wamwamuna anali wamkulu kwambiri poyerekezera ndi akazi, pamene zotsatira za gulu lawo la amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha zinatha pakati pa anthu a mitundu yonse, koma mwinamwake mwina sizinali zosiyana kwenikweni. Ngakhale a neuron adakhulupirira kuti pali kusiyana kwa INAH3, koma anazindikira kuti palibe fad.

Kusanthula kwa 2010, Garcia-Falgueras komanso Swaab ananena kuti "ubongo wa mwana umayamba pa intrauterine nthawi ya mzimayi kudzera mwa testosterone mwachindunji mitsempha ya mitsempha yopita patsogolo, kapena kudzera mwazimayi chifukwa cha kusowa kwa ma hormone. Mwa njira iyi, chikhalidwe chathu cha abambo (chikhulupiliro chokhala ndi amuna kapena akazi) ndi kugonana kumapangidwa kapena kukonzedwa m'magulu athu a ubongo tikadali mimba. Palibe chisonyezero chakuti malo amtundu wa anthu pambuyo pobadwira amakhala ndi zotsatira zogonana kapena kugonana. "Ovine version

Nkhosa yamtunduwu imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyang'aniratu Mapulogalamu oyambirira a makina osokoneza ubongo omwe amachititsa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, akukula kuchokera kuwunika lanu komwe kwinakwake pafupi ndi 8 peresenti ya nkhosa zamphongo zimakopeka kugonana ndi nkhosa zamphongo (zamwamuna) poyerekeza ndi kuchuluka kwa nkhosa zamphongo -yodalirika. Mu mitundu yambiri ya zamoyo, komanso khalidwe lalikulu kwambiri la kusiyana kwa kugonana ndilo lingakhalepo pakali pano pamtundu wamakono (SDN) wochokera ku pretictic hypothalamus, yomwe idzakhala yaikulu pakati pa amuna poyerekeza ndi amuna.

Roselli et al. anapeza TB ya ovine (oSDN) pa Preoptic hypothalamus yomwe ili yofanana muyeso, ngakhale kuti yaying'ono kwambiri kuposa yamphongo. Mahomoni angasonyeze m "nkhosa zamphongo ndi nkhosa zamphongo ndi mphamvu zowonjezera za oSDN. Koma zotsatira zake sizimagwirizanitsa gawo la aromatase ya neural kuchokera ku khalidwe la kugonana ndi ubongo kuchokera ku nkhuku, chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa kutetezedwa kwa kulakwitsa kogonana kochuluka kapena kuchuluka kwa oSDN chifukwa cha ntchito yonse ya aromatase kuchokera mu malingaliro awo fetus nthawi yonse yofunika kwambiri. Zingatheke kuti oSDN amuna ndi akazi okhaokha komanso ma morpholoji akhoza kukonzedwa. Zambirizi zimasonyeza kuti nkhosa zamphongo, monga nkhosa zamphongo, zimakhala zazikulu komanso zimatetezedwa podzitetezera za gonadotrophin, ndi kukwera, kulandira, koma sizitetezedwa chifukwa cha zokonda zomwe zimakondweretsa zomwe zimasonyeza kuti zizolowezi zoterezi zikhoza kukonzedweratu. Ngakhale cholinga cha oSDN sichinamvetsetse, nambala ya foni ya m'manja, nthawi, komanso mavoliyumu ake amawoneka kuti akugwirizana ndi kugonana, pamodzi ndi dimorphism pamtundu wake komanso komanso maselo angayambe kusokoneza. Kufufuzanso kwina kuli kofunika monga njira yozindikiritsira zosowa zina ndi nthawi ya kusasitsa kwa oSDN ndi njira zomwe zimawonetsera kuti mawonetseredwe apadera akukula msinkhu.

Nkhani yakale yolinganiza

Chiphunzitso choyambiriracho chimaphatikizapo kuphunzira ku Pulogalamu yapamwamba komanso zinthu zomwe zimalepheretsa masculinization a malingaliro awo. Zotsalira za mahomoni zakhala zikuwonetsedwa ndi malipoti angapo pomwe chinthu chofunika kwambiri pozindikira kugonana, kuphatikizapo. Mfundo imeneyi imalimbikitsidwa ndi kusiyana kwa kusamvetsetsana ndi ubongo pakati pa kugonana ndi amuna okhaokha. Zolemba za 1 za kusiyana kumeneku ndizakuti lingaliro lanu lakuti kupitiriza kwa ma hormone kumachokera ku chiberekero kupyolera mu chitukuko kungathe kusintha masculinization a malingaliro awo mwa amuna. Mlingo wa mankhwalawa amakhulupirira kuti umakhudzidwa ndi zipangizo za amayi ndi abambo kuyamwa mankhwala okhudzidwa ndi amayi, pamodzi ndi chidziwitso. Chiphunzitso ichi chikhoza kuwonjezeredwa mu kufufuza kumeneku kwa kubadwa kwa kubadwa.

Zosowa zimakhala zowawa

Daryl Bem, katswiri wa zamaganizo ku yunivesite ya Cornell, adalongosola zotsatira za zochitika zogonana zitha kuwonetsedwa ndikumana ndi achinyamata. Makhalidwe a mwana amamasula mwanayo kuti asankhe zinthu zina. Chifukwa cha khalidweli, zomwe zidzatsimikiziridwa ndi zinthu monga ziwalo za chibadwidwe, ana angapo posachedwapa adzabweretsedwe ndi ntchito zomwe zimachitikira ana enieni. Enawo angasankhe. Izi zidzatulutsa mwana yemwe ali ndi chidziwitso chogonana chosiyana ndi ana, ngakhale kuti ana omwe sagwirizana ndi amuna ndi akazi adzalandira mosiyana. Monga momwe Bem ananenera, kukakamiza mwanayo atangokhala mamembala kudzatulutsidwa ndi kusokonezeka kumeneku kukhala "wosiyana". Zomwe zimaonetsa kuti kukakamizika kwapaderazi kudzasinthidwa kuti zisonkhezeretsa thupi: ana amatha kukwatira kugonana komwe amapeza monga zosiyana ("zosowa"). Malingaliro awa amatchuka kwambiri otchedwa "zovuta zodziwika".

Zosaka zofufuzidwa zothandizira kuchokera ku mabuku omwe anasindikizidwa komabe sizinapereke deta. Kafukufuku amene adawatchula ngati zizindikiro zokhudzana ndi "chiwonetsero chodabwitsa" akuphatikizapo kafukufuku wogonana ndi Bell et al ndi mayesero omwe asayansi amasonyeza kuti kupezeka kwakukulu kwa amuna ndi akazi omwe ali ndi zibwenzi zogonana ndi amuna okhaokha kumakhala kuti ndizosiyana ndi amuna kapena akazi omwe ali osagwirizana nawo. Ngakhale kufufuza meta kwa maphunziro onse a 4-8 kunasonyeza kuti achinyamata ali achinyamata ndi omwe amachititsa kuti amuna ndi akazi adziwone zachiwerewere. Zotsatira za 6 "zotheka" - zomwe zikhoza kukhala zoyambirira zomwe zinayambira pamodzi pogwiritsa ntchito anyamata osagwirizana pafupifupi zaka 63 ndipo amawapeza ali wamkulu komanso okhwima - Peresenti ya 63 ya anyamata awo osagwirizana ndi kugonana anafunikira kugonana kapena maganizo pamene akukula.

Kuyankhulana ndi chitukuko

Zinalembedwa m'munsimu monga:

General

Zochitika zogonana zomwe zimapangitsa kuti nthawi zambiri zogonana zokhudzana ndi masiku ano zitheke kuchepetsa kubereka bwino, komanso chifukwa cha izi, amawoneka ngati zovuta zogwirizana ndi zochitika zotsutsana ndi Darwin (kukangana pakati pa anthu). kutsimikiziranso kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumachepetsa nthawi zambiri. Zolingaliro zina zapita patsogolo kuti zifotokoze kutsutsana uku, komanso kuti kuthekera kwawo kwawonetsedwa ndi umboni woyesera.

Akatswiri ena amanena kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi Adaptive, mwa kupindula ndi ana anu kapena njovu. Kupyolera mwachitsanzo, mapeto omwe amachititsa kuti magazi asapitirire kuchepa ngati matendawa akupezeka, kuphatikizapo kuteteza malungo omwe ali ndi vuto la kuchepa kwa magazi, .

Akatswiri Komanso adalongosola Darwin mwiniwakeyo akufotokozera Kin zosiyanasiyana pa The Origin of Species, motero pansi pa Darwin ya chitukuko, mwinamwake mwina osati anthu okha, koma mabukhu a banja (magazi) angagwiritse ntchito kusankha.

Brendan Zietsch wa bungwe la Queensland Institute of Medical Research likusonyeza kuti lingaliro lakuti amuna omwe ali ndi mphamvu zowonjezera kukwatirana ndi akazi amatha kukhala okongola kwa akazi, kupatsidwa ma jini kuphatikiza nthawi zambiri sikuwawopseza kuti akwaniritse kukana kugonana.

Pa kafukufuku wa 2008, olemba ake adanena kuti "Alipo omwe amaganiza kuti" pamene majeremusi omwe amachititsa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amachepetsa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, akhoza kupindula ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe amawagonjetsa. " Zotsatira zawo zimasonyeza kuti "majeremusi omwe amachititsa kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha angapindule kwambiri chifukwa chogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, zomwe zingathandize kuwunikira ndikukula ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha".

Koma, Phunziro lofanana, olembawo adanena kuti "zifukwa zina zosagwiritsira ntchito ma genetic sizingatheke kukhala" chifukwa chogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, omwe amagonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe ali ndi zibwenzi zambiri, makamaka akunena kuti " njira yowonongeka kwambiri "(kotero fufuzani chiwerengero chowonjezeka cha okondana) pa fanizo la lingaliro lina lokha.

Phunziro la Heterosexual opindula limapatsidwa chithandizo kuchokera ku Phunziro lachi Italiya la 2004 lomwe likukweza mmwamba mwa mamuna achikazi omwe ali achibale a amuna achiwerewere. Monga poyamba kunanenedwa ndi Hamer, ngakhale kuwonjezeka pang'ono Kukhoza kubereka kwa atsikana omwe amachititsa "gay gene" akhoza kuonetsetsa kuti akukonzekera.

Gay theory of work

Ngakhale "amalume a gay hypothesis" posonyeza kuti anthu omwe alibe ana awo amatha kupititsa patsogolo zochitika mwa okondedwa awo m'mibadwo yotsatira powapatsa zipangizo (monga chakudya, kuyang'anira, chitetezo, chitetezo) kumtunda wachinyumba chapafupi kwambiri chiyanjano.

Chiphunzitso ichi chikadali kukula kwa lingaliro ili lachiyanjano, lomwe lakonzedwa kuti lifotokoze. Chiphunzitso choyamba chomwe chasonyezedwa ndi JBS Haldane pa 1932 ndipo pambuyo pake anafotokozedwa ndi ena omwe akuphatikizapo John Maynard Smith, WD Hamilton ndi Mary Jane West-Eberhard. Chiphunzitso chimenechi chinagwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokozera zizoloŵezi zosiyana siyana za nkhanza za anthu zomwe pafupifupi mamembala onse akhala opanda abambo.

Vasey pamodzi ndi VanderLaan (2010) anafufuza lingalirolo ku Pacific Island la Samoa, kulikonse kumene anaphunziranso amuna fa'afafine, komanso akazi, amuna achikulire omwe ali komanso ngati achikulire omwe amadziwika pa chitukuko monga mtundu wa kugonana. Vasey ndi VanderLaan adapeza kuti fa'afafine adafotokozera kuti iwo anali okonzeka kuthandizira achibale awo, koma anali ndi chidwi chofuna kuthandiza ana omwe sali achibale awo, ndikupereka umboni wovomerezeka kuti atsatire mfundo yawo.

Chiphunzitsochi chikugwirizana ndi kafukufuku wosiyana pa Izi zomwe zimasonyeza kuti ndizokulu pakati pa agogo ndi alongo. Popeza kuti mgwirizanowo pamodzi ndi abale athu amagawaniza majini ndipo amakhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana yowonongeka, panali ngozi yaikulu ya banja ngati polojekitiyi yawonetsedwa. Iwo amadziwika kuti mahomoni ndi zochitika zapansi pa zachilengedwe (zogwirizana ndi Zowonjezera Zowonjezera) zingathe kukhala ngati zowonjezera.

Kuwona kuti lingaliro limathetsa vuto la kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndilo Ngakhale kuti akutsutsana pochita kuswana, Mwina mwina sanasankhidwe zaka zikwi makumi ambiri, asayansi ambiri amakhulupirira kuti njira yaikulu ya khalidwe monga kugonana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Kusiyana kwa belu-curve komwe kumachitika mu chikhalidwe cha anthu ndi masamu kumatanthauzira mawu osiyanasiyana.

Vasal ndi VanderLaan (2011) amapereka umboni wakuti kuyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito moyenera kuti avuncular pain ndi rophilic phenotype zikupezeka pamodzi ndi kusinthika kwake komwe kumapangidwira ndi malo osiyana siyana, ndipo chikhalidwe chokhacho sichikwanira, monga mawu a phenotype.

Zachilengedwe

Chiwerengero cha Maphunziro Apeza zogwirizana pakati pa mawonekedwe a Anthu komanso zatsopano zawo; Maphunzirowa amapereka umboni wosonyeza kuti:

Atsikana ndi anyamata achiwerewere amakhala nawo, pafupipafupi Mind hemispheres. Amuna ndi Atsikana Osauka, amakhala ndi ubongo waukulu kwambiri.

Mutu wa hypothalamus unawululidwa ndi Swaab komanso Hopffman kuti akhale oposa amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha poyerekeza ndi amuna osakwatiwa omwe sali achiwerewere, kuti mutu wa suprachiasmatic umadziwika kukhala waukulu kwambiri mwa amuna poyerekeza ndi atsikana.

Lipoti la anyamata, mkati mwachizoloŵezi, pang'onopang'ono kwambiri ndi Penishe yaitali poyerekeza ndi amuna akuluakulu.

Zofanana za iyi INAH 3 pa malingaliro a amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha Ali kwinakwake molingana ndi momwe INAH 3 akazi amachitira, izo zidzakhala zazikulu kwambiri, komanso minofu yochuluka kwambiri, poyerekeza ndi ubongo wamwamuna wachikulire wamwamuna wamkulu.

Kupititsa patsogolo kumayambiriro kwa amayi poyerekeza ndi anyamata ndi amayi atchulidwa kuti akhale akuluakulu amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha poyerekeza ndi amuna osakwatirana omwe si achiwerewere, komabe kafukufuku wamtsogolo sanawonetse kusiyana kulikonse.

Ubongo wa amuna achiwerewere amachititsa kuti fluotetin ikhale yotchedwa seroxonin.

Kuchita kwa khutu ndi dongosolo lopakatikati lazinthu-m'zinthu zamaliseche ndi abambo opatsirana pogonana zimakhala zochepa kwambiri monga ntchito zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito mwa amuna akuluakulu poyerekezera ndi amayi omwe sali achiwerewere (ofufuza omwe ankatsutsa izi zikugwirizana ndi momwe amachitira atsikana omwe ali ndi vutoli. za kugonana).

Kuyankha kochititsa chidwi (Diso lowala pambuyo phokoso lalikulu) lidzakhala Masculini kuchokera kwa amayi ndi akazi omwe ali ndi zibwenzi.

Ubongo wa amuna okhaokha omwe si amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amachitanso mosiyana ndi 2 kuika mazenera Gender pheromones (NDI, omwe amapezeka m'magulu otetezeka, komanso EST.

Ngakhale amygdale, dera la malingaliro, ndilopambana kwambiri kwa Amuna Achikulire Achigololo kuposa amuna pamene akugonjetsedwa ndi zinthu zogonana.

Kusiyanitsa kwapadera komwe kumakhudzana ndi zala ndi zala zolembapo Zakhala zolembedwa kuti zisagwirizane, kawirikawiri, pakati pa amayi omwe si achiwerewere ndi amodzi.

Amayi achiwerewere ndi amuna achiwerewere amakhala ochuluka kwambiri.

Kafufuzidwe ka amuna Oposa 50 adapeza kuti pafupifupi 23 peresenti anali ndi tsitsi la Counter-clock whorl, mmalo mwa 8 peresenti kuchokera pa anthu omwe alipo. Izi zingathe kugwirizana ndi dzanja lamanzere.

Amuna achiwerewere apanga mphamvu ya girth pamapepala awo pa zala zawo zamanzere ndi zala zazikulu.

Nthawi ya miyendo komanso miyendo pa amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi zazikulu mosiyanitsa ndi msinkhu poyerekezera ndi anthu ambiri, komabe, amodzi mwa amuna akuluakulu.

Zochitika Zandale

Zolemba zazikulu: LGBT kusuntha kwa anthu ndi LGBT Kutsutsana kwa Malamulo

Kaya zochitika zapachikhalidwe zimayambitsa maziko a kugonana ndi nkhani. Ngakhale Mlembi, magazini ya US ogonana ndi amuna okhaokha komanso azimayi omwe amachitira zachiwerewere, omwe adalembedwa mu 1996 omwe 61 peresenti ya olembetsawo amakhulupirira "zikanathandiza kuti amuna ndi akazi azigonana ngati kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunatsimikiziridwa". Mtundu wina wa dziko la United States, Philippines, komanso Sweden anawona omwe ankakhulupirira kuti "amuna okhaokha amaloledwa mwanjira imeneyi" omwe anali ndi maganizo abwino okhudzana ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kusiyana ndi anthu omwe amakhulupirira kuti "amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amasankha kukhala motero" kapena " mwanjira imeneyo ".

Kuyimira chitetezo chofanana ku US Malamulo amatsimikiza ngati zofuna za boma zimapanga "chiwerengero cha zifukwa" za makalasi komanso momwe zilili ndi ufulu wowonjezera kuwonetsetsa zomwe zikuchitika pazinthu zingapo, zomwe sizidzasintha.

Umboni wakuti kugonana kumatsimikiziridwa (ndipo motero mwina osasinthika kuchokera ku lamulo) kudzalimbitsa mlandu wovomerezeka chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa kuunika kwa malamulo osankhira pazifukwa izi.

Zomwe zimayambitsa kugonana zimakhudza kwambiri kuimirira kwa anthu ochepetseredwa pogonana chifukwa cha maganizo a anthu ogonana. Ponena za mbaliyi, anthu ena ogwirizana ndi aubusa monga Reverend Robert Scheck adatsutsa anthu kuti avomereze zizindikiro zina za sayansi pamene amatsutsana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Ambiri amalimbikitsa ufulu wa anthu ochepa omwe akulimbana ndi kugwirizana kumeneku chifukwa chakuti kugonana kumatsimikiziridwa kapena kukonzedwa pang'ono. Amanena kuti kugonana kungasinthe nthawi ya moyo wa wina aliyense kudutsa nthawi. Pa nthawi yomweyi ena amatsutsa zovuta zachipatala kapena 'kugonana' kapena kuti 'pathologise'deviant'. LeVay adatchulidwa poyankha mawu ochokera kwa amuna kapena akazi omwe amachititsa kuti azifufuza molakwika "zathandiza kuti anthu omwe ali ndi chiwerewere amtundu wawo azikhala nawo".

Gender Dysphoria (GD) ndi vuto lanu lomwe munthu amakumana nawo ngati zotsatira za kugonana ndi amuna omwe anapatsidwa. Pachifukwa ichi, amuna ndi akazi samagwirizana ndendende ndi chidziwitso chogonana, komanso mwamuna ndi mwamuna. Pali umboni wosonyeza kuti asungwana omwe amayamba ndi kugonana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi awo amatha kuchita osati chifukwa cha khalidwe labwino kapena maganizo, komabe kuwonjezera pa mitundu ya zamoyo zomwe zimakhudzana ndi majini awo kapena kuopsa kwa mahomoni asanakwane.

Chidziwitso cha kugonana kwa kugonana (GID) chinagwiritsidwa ntchito Kuchokera ku DSM monga kugonana kwa dysphoria pogwiritsira ntchito kubwezeretsa DSM-5. Chizindikiritsochi chawonetsedwanso kuthetseratu manyaziwa komanso kugwirizana ndi. Bungwe la American Psychiatric Association, wolemba DSM-5, ananena kuti "kusagwirizana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi sikokwanira matenda a maganizo. Ena asayansi ndi amuna omwe amatsutsana ndi amuna ndi akazi amachititsa kuti matendawa asamangidwe chifukwa adanena kuti chizindikiritso chimalimbikitsa kusiyana kwa kugonana ndi kugonana pakati pa kugonana.

Njira zazikulu za amuna kuti azichiritsidwa Kupezeka ndi kugonana kwa dinikali zimalimbikitsa kugonana komwe mumaikonda kuti munthuyo monga chifukwa cha kugonana ndikulankhulana ndi ma ARV, kapena ntchito kapena psycho-treatment.

Umboni

Zisonyezero za GD mwa ana angaphatikizepo zina mwa zotsatirazi: Kunyansidwa m'magazi awo, kudzipatula pakati pawo ndi kusungunuka, nkhawa, kusungulumwa ndi anzawo anzawo. Malinga ndi bungwe la American Psychological Association, ana amasiye opatsirana pogonana amakhala ndi chizoloŵezi chochita nkhanza ndi kuzunzidwa pamasukulu, chithandizo cha abambo, malo osungirako zipatala, malo osamukira kumalo osungirako ziweto komanso machitidwe achilungamo a achinyamata poyerekeza ndi ana ena ambiri.

Makanda omwe amagwiritsa ntchito GD ali pachiopsezo chachikulu kwambiri monga nkhawa, nkhawa komanso kudzipha. Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuti kugonana kwa amuna amakhala ndi liwiro lalikulu kwambiri pakuyesera kudzipha; Kufufuza kamodzi kokha kwa 6,450 anthu opatsirana pogonana omwe ali ku United States anawona 4 1% adayesa kudzipha poyerekeza ndi chiwerengero cha anthu onse a 1.6 peresenti. Momwemonso, anapeza kuti ntchito zodzipha sizinali zochepa kuposa amuna ndi akazi omwe amagonana amuna ndi akazi omwe anafotokoza kuti okondedwa awo adakhalabe olimba pambuyo pake. Koma amuna ndi akazi osayeruzika omwe anali pangozi yochepa kwambiri analibe kudzipha komwe kunayesedwa poyerekezera ndi anthu onse. Anthu a Transgender angakhalenso pachiopsezo cha matenda a maganizo awa monga kudya.

Gender dysphoria mwa anthu omwe atumizidwa mmawawu Adzatsatira pakati pa 2 trajectories; mwina mofulumira kumayambiriro kapena ngakhale kumayambiriro koyambirira. Kuyamba koyambirira kwa kugonana kwa dysphoria kumawonekera pa unyamata. Pa nthawi, kumayambiriro koyambirira kwa kugonana kumagonana ngati kugonana ndi amuna okhaokha kuti atenge nthawi. Kalasiyi imakopabebe kwa anyamata mkati mwa kukula. Kugonana kwa dysphoria Sikumaphatikizapo zizindikiro mu unyamata, komabe nkhani zochepa za Achinyamata zomwe zinalephera kulemba kwa anthu ena ambiri. Anthu omwe amakumana ndi mchitidwe wolimbana ndi kugonana mofulumira, amatha kubweretsanso kwa atsikana.

zifukwa

Nkhani Yaikulu: Zifukwa za Thupi lachilengedwe

Nthawi iliyonse munthu amatha kukhala ndi ngongole yogonana. Ochita kafukufuku amatsutsa zokhudzana ndi zovuta ndi umoyo wochokera kwa anthu omwe ali ndi GID. olemba angapo amvetsetsa kuti anthu a World Health Organisation amadziŵa luso pamene amanyansidwa ndi kuzunzidwa; ndipo izi, ngati chikhalidwe chimafunikanso kuti amuna ndi akazi azikhala ndi zochepa kwambiri.

Kusanthula kawiri (kunenedwa pa anthu asanu ndi awiri pafupipafupi Gwirizanitsani mu Nursing sampuli khumi ndi zinayi) Zinawonetsa kuti GID ikhoza kukhala ndi makumi asanu ndi awiri peresenti ya chibadwidwe, kuwonetsa kuthekera kwa chitukuko kapena zotsatira za cholowa mwazochitika, chifukwa cha kupezeka kwake.

Matendawa

Yankee Medical Specialty Association imavomereza kugonana kwa maganizo pakati pa amuna ndi akazi pa nthawi yomwe miyezo ya DSM-5 imaonekera. DSM-5 imanena pa 2 za miyezo imeneyi yokhudzana ndi kugonana. Iyenera kulimbikitsidwa pa nthawi ya masabata a 6 pa achinyamata kapena akuluakulu kuti adziwe.

  • Cholinga chogwira ntchito ngati wina wogonana wina yemwe wapatsidwa kugonana
  • Kufunika koti azisamalidwa monga kugonana kupatula imodzi ya kugonana

  • Kusagwirizana kwakukulu pakati pa zochitika zogonana kapena zochitika zogonana chimodzimodzi kuphatikizapo umodzi wa kugonana
  • Chilakolako cha zinthu zanu Kuphatikiza pa kugonana kwanu
  • Chosowa chochotseratu kugonana kwa munthu mmodzi Chifukwa cha kusagwirizana ndi chigwirizano cha munthu mmodzi kapena kutchula kugonana
  • Chotsimikizika kuti mumalandira mayankho ndi kumverera za kugonana kupatulapo kugonana kwa wina
  • Kuonjezera apo, chikhalidwechi chiyenera kukhala chokhudzana ndi vuto lalikulu lachipatala kapena kuwonongeka.

DSM-5 inakhudza izi kuti zikhale kunja kwa gulu la matenda opatsirana pogonana ndikukhala m'kalasi yawoyake. Chidziwitsocho chinatchulidwanso kuchokera ku matenda osokonezeka maganizo pakati pa amuna ndi akazi, kamodzi kamodzi kotsutsa kuti nthawi yapitayi inali yonyoza. Kulemba kwachidule pogonana kumachotsedwa. Kupezeka kwa ana kunasiyana ndi kwa akuluakulu, monga "kupsinjika kwa kugonana kwa ana". Kuyamba kwa chizindikiritso Kuwonetsera kuthekera kwa ana omwe akupirira, kapena kuthekera kutchula zomwe akufunikira kuwoneka. Kuvutika maganizo pakati pa amuna kapena akazi kapena kugonana kungathe kukhalapo Ngati wina sakukumana ndi zifukwazo koma adakali ndi kachilombo ka HIV.

Matenda ambiri okhudzana ndi kugonana:

Amuna amtundu wawo, amatsatiridwa mofulumira ndi cholinga chokhala ndi opaleshoni komanso mankhwala othetsera mahomoni komanso mavuto okhudzana ndi kugonana komwe amauzidwa, asanatengere kugonana kwa chiwerewere kapena kugonana.

Kukonzekera kwa chiwerengero cha ICD cha kugonana Chiwerengero cha chiwerengero cha ICD-11 chikulosera.

Kuwonjezereka kwakukhalitsa matenda kunatengedwa, pamodzi palimodzi mbali yowonjezereka. ICD-11 imatanthawuza kugonana kosagonana monga "chizindikiro chodziwika ndi kugonana", pamodzi ndi ziwonetsero monga DSM-V malingaliro, komabe safuna kukhumudwa kwakukulu kapena chilema.

malangizo

Njira Yothandizira Kuti Munthu Wodziwidwa ndi GID angagwiritse ntchito Gulu-mankhwala kapena mwinamwake kulimbikitsa kugonana komwe mumaikonda kwa munthuyo chifukwa cha kugonana ndikutengera mankhwala a ma hormone, kapena ntchito. Izi mwina zimaphatikizapo uphungu, zomwe zimayambitsa kusintha kwa thupi, kapena kusintha kwa moyo, chifukwa cha ntchito monga laser kapena electrolysis opaleshoni yopaleshoni, opaleshoni, kapena njira zothandizira opaleshoni. Cholinga cha chithandizochi chikhoza kukhala kuchepetsa mavuto omwe amachititsa monga chitsanzo, kuchokera pa khalidwe lanu laumwini, ngati njira yothetsera kudzimvera chisoni poyendetsa uphungu munthu wina, kapena kulangiza mnzake.

Kugwiritsa ntchito kapena mankhwala chifukwa cha kugonana kwa dysphoria Ndikumakangana chifukwa cha kusagwedezeka kwa kusintha kwa thupi. Malangizo amasonyezedwa kuthandiza othandizira. Anthu ena amagwiritsa ntchito ndondomeko mwachidule mu Gianna Israel komanso Transgender Care ya Donald Tarver. Njira zothandizira njira yachiritso zimagwirizana ndi "kuchepetsa mavuto".

Ana aang'ono omwe asanabadwe

Funso ndiloti alangize ana kuti asangalale Kuwaitanira kuti apitirizebe kusonyeza makhalidwe omwe sali oyenera amuna awo omwe apatsidwa - kapena ngakhale kufufuzira kusintha komwe kuli ndi amuna awo - ndizogwirizana mofanana. Achipatala angapo amafotokoza ana ochulukirapo nthawi zambiri kawirikawiri asamawonetsere matenda enaake a dysphoria.

Ndayamba kulankhula ndikupereka mahomoni, omwe amatchedwanso kutha msinkhu, kotero kuti asamangoyamba kumene kusamba kwa mwana asanaganize kuti akhale wamkulu mokwanira kuti apange chisankho chophunzitsidwa ngati kugonana kwa chidziwitso cha kugonana kumadzetsa kuti chidwi cha munthu payekha.

Zosokoneza maganizo

Psycho-treatment anali kuti njira yothandizira mwamunayo kuti ikhale yolondola pa kugonana kwa mphamvu zawo zomwe zimapezeka mwazing'ono, Kugonana kwa dzira, kunatsogoleredwa. Psycho -rapy ndikulumikizana kulikonse komwe kumayesetsa kusamalira nkhani. Ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito popereka thandizo ngakhale madokotala ambiri amagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala othandizira kuti asamalire kugonana kwa dysphoria. Thandizo la maganizo pa GID limafuna kuti munthuyo athandizidwe. Kuyesera kulandira GID mwa kungosintha malingaliro a kugonana kwa munthu payekha kuti asonyeze mphamvu zobwera sizinapambane.

Zodzoladzola

Mankhwala ochizira matenda opatsirana kachiwiri ndi oyamba kugonana kuti athe kuchepetsa kusiyana pakati pa thupi ndi kugonana kwa munthu. Thandizo lachilengedwe la GID popanda vuto lililonse la mankhwala ndilosazolowereka. Asayansi apeza kuti anthu ayenera kudumpha mumagulu awo opatsirana pogonana, amadzimva atasokonezeka ndipo ataya ngati njira zawo zothandizira sizinali zokwanira.

Psychotherapy, mankhwala omwe amachititsa kuti mankhwala asinthidwe, komanso ntchito yowonongeka pakati pa amuna ndi akazi akhoza kupulumutsa kuchipatala nthawi zonse pamene zoyembekeza za WPATH zakhala zikutsatiridwa.

Chiwerengero cha kukhutira pamodzi ndi zonse zochizira ndi zamaganizo ndizofunikira.

Epidemiology

Mipata ya Anthu omwe ali ndi Trans Gender kudziwika kwaokha Pakufika kwachepa kwa 1: 2000 (pafupifupi 0.05percent) kuchokera ku Netherlands ndi Belgium kupita ku 0.5percent wa akuluakulu a Massachusetts. Kuchokera ku kafukufuku wa ku sukulu yapamwamba ku sukulu ya New Zealand, 8,500 mwasankha anaphunzira sukulu ya sekondale kuchokera ku 9 1 mwapadera anatenga masukulu omwe anapeza 1.2percent ya ophunzira anayankha "inde" mu funso ili "Kodi mukuganiza kuti ndinu transgender?" . Zonsezi ndizokhazikitsidwa. Zimayesedwa kuti pafupifupi 0.005percent kwa 0.014percent ya amuna ndi akazi omwe amadziwika kuti abambo ndi 0.002percent kwa 0.003percent ya anthu omwe apatsidwa akazi m'mawa amadziwika kuti ali ndi vuto la kugonana, [kutanthauzira] amalongosola zowonetsera za 2013, ngakhale kuti zingatheke amaonedwa ngati kuchepa pang'ono. Kafukufuku amasonyeza kuti anthu omwe amacheza kukhwima nthawi zambiri akhala akupita nthawi ya 3 kuti akhale amuna otumizidwa m'mawa, komabe pakati pa anthu kuti chiwerengero cha kugonana chiri pafupi ndi 1: 1.

History

Nthenda ya kugonana yowonongeka tsopano ndiyo ndemanga yakale ya boma lanu kuchokera ku DSM. DSA 1st ya APA inafotokozera dziko kuchokera m'buku la 3rd ("DSM-III") ku 1980. Kotero kuti alole iwo kuti azipeza mapepala akale Ovomerezedwa akuwombera mankhwala kwa achinyamata kuchokera ku 1-2 a zaka zapitazo. Machenjezo a 127 adapezedwa ndi chizolowezi cha 2010 chifukwa cha kugonana kwa dysphoria.

Ngakhalenso T & P inatsiriza mayesero kuti azindikire kuti ubwino wa maganizo, umoyo ndi chikhalidwe ndi zoopsa zomwe zimafunikira ndi 1 2 - kwa odwala a zaka 14. Chiwonetserochi chimaonedwa kuti ndi chipambano chakuti odwala amavomereza kupanga mankhwala omwe amapezeka mosavuta komanso kwa ana omwe ali ndi zaka makumi khumi ndi ziwiri za 9. Monga posachedwapa monga malangizo a 2009 akuti mankhwala othandizira kugonana kwa diniko ayenera kuti asayambe kutha msinkhu mpaka kutha msinkhu. Mankhwala opanga mankhwala amapanga mankhwala a Triptorelin, omwe amalimbikitsidwa pansi pa mutu wa Gonapeptyl, mu mlingo # woposa awiri womwe uli tsiku ndi tsiku. Ndondomekoyi imakonzansobe, kotero kuti kutengera kwaumunthu kudzakhazikitsanso kale.

Society ndi chitukuko

Zomwe anthu amachita ndizosiyana ndi zomwe zimachitika ndi chikhalidwe, komanso zimakhudzidwa ndi kugonana. Mwachitsanzo, kukhazikitsidwa kwa mitundu yapadera ndi "msungwana" kapena "anyamata" amayamba kale kwambiri m'mayiko ochokera ku Western Europe Zolinga zimakhudza zonena ndi makhalidwe.

Mibadwo ingapo ili ndi zitatu zomwe zimafotokozedwa kugonana: msungwana, mwamuna, ndi abusa a Effeminate. Mwachitsanzo, ku Samoa, '' komanso gulu la amuna omwe ali achikazi, fa'afafine omwe amavomerezedwa kwathunthu. Ngakhale fa'afafine kawirikawiri sangafunikire wina wa zovuta kapena izi ndikunyoza pamodzi ndi kuchoka ku gawo la kugonana lomwe limagwirizanitsidwa. Izi zikutanthawuza kuti zovuta zokhudzana ndi GID kumadzulo sikuti zimachokera ku matenda okha, komabe ndi zovuta. Komabe, kafukufuku wapeza kuti kupanikizika kukupitirirabe ku zitukuko, kummawa kapena zosiyana, zomwe zingakhale zogwirizana kwambiri ndi kugonana kosagwirizana.

Adavomerezedwa ndi Norrie, yemwe anayenera kukhala ndi gulu lachiwerewere, osati 'enieni', atagonjera khoti pamodzi pogwiritsa ntchito onse a NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. Komabe, Khotilo silinagwirizanepo kuti kugonana kumeneko kunali chikhalidwe cha anthu: '' adafufuzidwa kuti opaleshoni yowonongeka kwa amuna ndi akazi sanathe kuthetsa kugonana kwake. '

Chizindikiro cha matenda

Matenda a matenda opatsirana pogonana (panopa akugonana ndi dysphoria) anayamba ku DSM-III ku 1980. Arlene Istar Lev pamodzi ndi Deborah Rudacille adasiyanitsa ndi kusamuka kwa ndale. Ofufuza ena, mwachitsanzo Robert Spitzer komanso Paul J. Fink, amanena kuti makhalidwe ndi zochitika zomwe zimapezeka mu kugonana kwachiwerewere ndizosawonetsa komanso zimawonetsa matenda.

Anthu omwe amagonana ndi dysphoria Angathe kapena kulemekeza makhalidwe awo ndi maganizo awo chifukwa cha matenda. Zofooka ndi Mapindu alipopo kuti akwanitse kuthetsa vutoli. Chifukwa chakuti matenda opatsirana pogonana amagawidwa chifukwa cha matenda m'mabuku okhudza zaumoyo (mwachitsanzo, DSM handiresi, 'DSM-IV-TR, pansi pa mutu wakuti "vuto lachidziwitso cha amuna"), mabungwe ambiri a inshuwalansi amadzipereka mofunitsitsa za ndalama zowonongeka kwa amuna ndi akazi. Kuperewera kwa kusowa kwa kugonana kwa dysphoria monga chikhalidwe, mankhwala othandizira anthu kugonana kuti athe kubwezeretsa amayi mwina akhoza kusamalidwa, ndipo akhoza kuwoneka ngati mankhwala, osati mankhwala. Amuna ndi akazi ali ochepa kwambiri kuposa ena ambiri kuti akhale ndi inshuwalansi ya zaumoyo, ndipo nthawi zambiri amakumana ndi chisamaliro ndi chidani kuchokera ku makampani a zaumoyo.

Chidziwitso cha DSM-IV-TR Chigawo cha mavuto Sizinthu zochokera payekha zomwe zimakhudzana ndi tsankho ndi kukanidwa. Pulofesa wa Psychology Darryl Hill akuwona kuti matenda a dysphoria sikuti amangokhala operewera, koma mmalo mwake zizindikiro zimasonyeza kuvutika kwa ana omwe zimachitika pamene ena ambiri pamodzi ndi amayi ndi abambo ali ndi vuto. Anthu a Transgender omwe amatsutsidwa pozunzidwa, kuzunzidwa ndi nkhanza, amakhalanso osagwirizana ndi anthu. Mu May 2009, akuluakulu a boma a ku France adalengeza kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kudzakhala ngati matenda okhudza maganizo, koma kuchokera ku mayiko a ufulu wa ku France palibe china chosinthidwa. Denmark amapanga mawu ku 2016.

Kubwerera ku ICD-11, GID imatulutsidwa ngati matenda osagonana. Otsatira otsogolera akulimbikitsanso kusunga kafukufuku ku ICD-11 kuti asunge Ntchito.

Mabwenzi apamtima Mauthenga a Wiki w.svg

Gawo ili silikusowa zambiri Anthu omwe ali ndi zibwenzi. Chonde ndikukulitsani dera. Zenizeni zingathe kukhazikitsidwa patsamba la zokambirana.

Zolumikizana zokhudzana ndi Amayi ndi Amuna komanso azinyanja Anthu omwe ali ndi GID adzapirira panthawi yonse ya kusintha, kapena kusintha kukhala mizimu. Kulumikizana pakati pa amayi komanso anthu omwe ali ndi matendawa amavutika nthawi yomwe GID yasonyezedwa kapena kumvetsetsedwa. Ofufuzira amanena kuti tsogolo la chiyanjanochi likuwoneka kuti amadalira kusintha kwa mkaziyo. Nthawi zambiri maubwenzi amawoneka, ndi onse omwe amacheza ndi cisgender kukhala okwiya kapena osakhutira, pamene wokwatirana amakhala ndi nthawi ya mkazi, pamene abwenzi ake amatha kuchepa, ngati wokwatirana ali wokwiya komanso amalingaliro ngati chochokera kwa mwamuna. Amayi a Cisgender amakhalanso okhudzidwa ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu ndipo sangakhale osangalatsa ndi amayi onse omwe ali ndi zibwenzi pakati pawo pamene wothandizira amayamba panthawi ya kusintha. Ngakhalenso akazi a cisgender omwe amangovomereza kuti asinthe ndi kusintha maganizo awo, ndiye kuti ofufuzawo amadziwika kuti ndi anthu omwe ali ndi maulendo ang'onoang'ono okhudzana ndi kugonana kapena anthu omwe amagwiriridwa ndi amuna komanso amuna.

Malamulo

Lamulo lomwe likupezeka likuletsera sukulu Malingana ndi makhalidwe omwe ali nawo, monga kugonana, kufanana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi, ndi kugonana, ndikufotokozera malingaliro osiyanasiyana a cholinga cha malamulo kuphatikizapo kufotokozedwa kwa dziko lino pambali iyi. Lamulo logwira ntchito likuyembekeza kuti kutenga nawo mbali muchithunzitso chakuphunzitsidwa chakuthupi kapena masewera, ngati chivomerezo cha ophunzira a amuna ndi akazi, khalani pafupi ndi ophunzira a amuna onse. Ndalamayi ingapangitse wophunzira kuti aloledwe kutenga nawo mbali pulogalamu ya mapulogalamu, ntchito, monga mpikisano wa masewera ndi magulu, komanso agwiritse ntchito malo ogwirizana ndi kugonana kwawo, ngakhale kuti kugonana kwalembedwa pa zolemba za wophunzira.

Ngakhale Msonkhano wa Katolika wa California unafananitsa chikhomo chosafunika, popeza malamulo alipo kuti athetse tsankho. A spokeswoman a msonkhanowo adanena kuti kudandaula kuyenera kuchitidwa ndi apolisi.

Kuletsa ufulu wa LGBT

Chotsatira chotsatirachi chikuphatikizapo mavuto. Kumbukirani kuthandiza kuthandizira. (Phunzirani momwe mungathetsere mauthenga awa template)

  • Chotsatira chotsatirachi chingakhale chosagwirizana ndi zochitika.
  • Lipoti ili likufuna kuwerengera kwa kutsimikiziridwa.
  • Gawo la chingwe pa

Malamulo oyendetsa dziko lapansi LGBT kulera ana kusamukira kudziko lina Mavuto okhudza ufulu wa ogwirizanitsa malamulo a Intersex Kulimbana ndi kugonana Kugonana kwa amuna okhaokha Kugonana kwa ufulu wa LGBT kumayiko ena

Kukanika kwa ufulu wa LGBT Kungakhale kukana kwanu ku ufulu:

Mabungwe amphamvu kukaniza ufulu wa LGBT Amatsutsana kwambiri ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo omwe amachititsa mgwirizano womwewo wogwirizana ndi kugonana, kupititsa patsogolo kukakamiza lamulo loletsa kuthetsa zolakwa zotsutsana ndi LGBT, mwachitsanzo ntchito ndi nyumba, kupyolera mwa malamulo a AntiBullying kuti azitsatira malamulo a ana a LGBT kusokoneza mgwirizano wa amuna ndi akazi, komanso malamulo omwe ali ndi ufulu wa LGBT. Mipingo yonseyi nthawi zambiri imakhala ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu kapena achipembedzo.

Chikhulupiliro cha chikhulupiliro chikhoza kulimbikitsa kukana, Kugonana, kusokoneza maganizo, kusagwirizana, ziphunzitso za boma, kapena zofotokozera zina.

Malamulo amene mpikisano wa ufulu wa LGBT ukhoza kuyerekezedwa ndi kuphatikizapo maukwati kapena mabungwe, mabungwe a LGBT kulera ndi kulandira ana, opereka zida zankhondo, kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zothandizira kubereka, komanso kupezeka kwa opaleshoni yowonongeka kwa amuna ndi abambo komanso mahomoni omwe amachititsa kuti amuna ndi akazi adzidwe.

History

Ophunzira adalangizidwa kuchokera ku chipani cha Nazi cha Pulojekiti ya Kufufuza Zokhudza Kugonana ku Berlin pa 6 May 1933, kulanda mabuku ndi zithunzi zawo mpaka kulanda ndalamazo.

Bungwe loyambirira la ufulu wa chiwerewere linayamba kuchokera kumapeto kwa zaka za m'ma 1800 ku Germany.

Kuchokera ku 1920s ndi 1930s, mupeza LGBT Communities m'madera ambiri monga Berlin; Wolemba zachijeremani-wachiyuda Magnus Hirschfeld mwachionekere anali mmodzi mwa olankhula nawo kuti alandire ufulu wa LGBT pamphindi. Pulezidenti wa chipani cha chipani cha Nazi utayamba kulamulira mu 1933, imodzi mwa zochitika zoyambirira za zikondwererozi zinali kutentha Hirschfeld's Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, kumene amitundu ambiri odziwika bwino a Nazi ankadandaula kuti amvetsetse za kugonana. Poyamba adasinthira kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha a Ernst Röhm pamodzi ndi omutsatira ake, motero amuna ambiri ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ankalowerera m'gulu la chipani cha Nazi pambuyo pa Usiku wa Zingwe Zambirimbiri komanso malamulo a Section 175 anayamba kuyanjanitsidwa, pogwiritsa ntchito amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe analowa m'ndende zozunzirako anthu ndi 1938.

Pansi pa ulamuliro wa chipani cha Nazi ku Germany, amuna ndi akazi a LGBT a Law Rights akhala akuyendera awiri. Kupititsa patsogolo malamulo ndi malamulo omwe alipo omwe amaloledwa kugwiritsira ntchito kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha anali; kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kwachitidwa moyenera, koma monga matenda a matenda. Njira yopangira mankhwala inali pulogalamu ya eugenics, yokonzedwanso ndi boffin kuti ikhale ndi euthanasia, ndi kuyamba ndi kuperewera kwa mtundu wina wa anthu kumisasa ya ntchito. Kuyendetsa galimoto ndiko kuchotsa chuma chochokera kwa anthu - chibadwidwe, chikhalidwe, chikhalidwe, ndi chipatala, komanso kuti kuchotseratu kufooka kwa madigiri ambiri. Mankhwalawa amayenera kugwirizanitsa ndi ntchito yopatsa machiritso m'dziko lonse lapansi, komanso chithunzi chomwe chimachititsa kuti madokotala azachipatala a Nazi apitirize kukhala: kuti mchiritsi adasanduka wakupha. Ndondomeko ya inshuwalansi yowonjezera ubongo yakhala ikugwirizana nthawi zonse ndi masewero olimbitsa thupi komanso amadzimadzi a masomphenya awa: Pamodzi ndi "kuyeretsedwa kwa thupi lonse" kuphatikizapo "kuthetseratu zolepheretsa kulandira cholowa."

Zimatsutsidwa kuti Holocaust inali yosiyana ndi odwala ena omwe anaphedwa ndi Holocaust, omwe ankangogonjetsedwa ndi Germany okhawo, kudalira malemba omwe a amuna ndi akazi omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha a 50,000 omwe anafika patsogolo pa oweruza, kuphatikizapo 5,000 ndi 15,000 anamaliza kumisasa yachibalo. Koma anthu angapo omwe anadza patsogolo pa makhoti adatsogozedwa (kapena kudzipereka) kuti awonongeke / kutayika; iwo adzaphatikizidwa limodzi ndi ena ambiri omwe, mogwirizana ndi kusintha konse kwa mbiri yakale m'Chijeremani chamakono chamakono (chomwe chinayamba kugwiritsa ntchito Westphal, chomwe chinapezedwanso kudzera mwa Krafft-Ebing ku Magnus Hirschfield, cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe tsopano akuwoneka ngati kugwiritsa ntchito ubongo, chitukuko choyambirira kapena cholowa), adagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti adziwe kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumakhala kovuta kuposa zolakwa. Anthuwa ankachiritsidwa ndi odwala matenda a maganizo ndipo anaphatikizapo ntchito ya T4 kuti atulutse anthu omwe ali ndi vuto lomwe sanaganizidwe kuti sichidzawululidwe m'magulu a.

Kulankhula za kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, koma anyamata ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha adasankha kudziwonetsera. Midzi ndi maubwenzi ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amapangidwa, komanso palinso chikhalidwe chogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha chomwe chinapangidwira.] Misonkhano yokhudzana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha inayamba kukula mu UK. Pomwe mapeto a kugonana kwa amuna ndi akazi a 1960 anayamba kutha, adayambanso kusokonezedwa m'madera monga UK, New Zealand, Australia, North America ndi Europe, mkati mwa zochitika zawo zoberekera ndi kubwezeretsa maganizo. Kukonzekera kukana kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunayamba kuchokera ku 1970 s.

Kuwonera kwa anthu

Maganizo a anthu pa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amasiyana mosiyana ndi miyambo yosiyanasiyana komanso miyambo yosiyana siyana, monga momwe amachitira zofuna zogonana ndi zochitika. Mitundu yambiri imakhala ndi zoyenera zokhudzana ndi kugonana; ena amasangalala ndi zachilendo, koma izi ndizosavomerezeka ndi ena.

Kafukufuku wa 2012 CNN anasonyeza kuti anthu ambiri a ku America amadziwika kuti ali ndi ufulu wogonana. Mu 2015, kufufuza kwa anthu a ku Japan kuphatikizapo adapeza gawo lalikulu lovomerezeka.

Zolinga zachipembedzo zotsutsa

Gawo ili lalembedwa ngati chiwonetsero kapena chidziwitso cha Remark chomwe chimati malemba a Wikipedia okhudza nkhani. Muyenera kuthandizira pozijambula mu 11 yolemba mabuku, kulimbikitseni. (July 2015) (Phunzirani momwe mungathetsere template yapaderayi)

Onetsetsani za kugonana kwaumunthu

Mitundu yambiri ya zipembedzo, ngakhale monga Zipembedzo za Kum'mawa pamodzi ndi Chikhulupiriro sichilimbikitsa kugonana. Chikhristu cha Evangelical, Chikatolika, Chimormonism, Chiyuda cha Orthodox, ndi Chisilamu, chili ndi lingaliro lakuti kugonana ndi chikhalidwe cha uchimo amakhalanso ofooka.

Kukaniza kwachikhristu

Gawo ili likufuna kukula palimodzi pogwiritsa ntchito: ndime yeniyeni Kupeza malo a Tchalitchi cha Katolika pavutoli, kukhala ndi "kuwonanso" kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi mpingo wa Katolika; kusagwirizana kwa Katolika kumapititsa patsogolo pa Levitiko ndi Aroma ndipo kumaphatikizapo kukambirana kwa maonekedwe awo mgwirizano ndi okondedwa.Mungawathandize mwa kuperekapo. Kukambirana kungakhale pa tsamba la zokambirana (May 20-16)

Mavesi a Chipangano Chakale omwe amaletsa munthu "amanama ndime zambiri za Pauline zatchulidwanso motsutsana ndi amuna ndi akazi okhaokha. Akristu omwe amasankha miyambo ya chikhalidwe cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amavomereza kuwerenga kwa ziphunzitsozo kuchokera ku lingaliro limene Mulungu amatsutsana ndi kugonana komweko, pamene akhristu omwe amafuna kukhala omasuka kwenikweni amaganiza kuti chifukwa chiyani mavesi enieniwo akunena zinthu zomwe zikuchitika, monga chizunzo kapena kugwiriridwa, komanso mwina mwina osagonana.

Kutsutsa kwachisilamu

Zili zolakwika pansipa:

Malangizo: Islam ndi machitidwe

Sodomy Imatengedwa kuti ndi yolakwa komanso yoletsedwa m'mitundu yambiri ya Chisilamu, monga lamulo la Sharia, limapereka chilango cha imfa ku Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Sudan ndi Yemen.

Chilango cha imfa chinatsirizika ndi izo ku Afghanistan pansi pa Taliban. Ku Egypt, amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha amaimbidwa mlandu potsatira malamulo onse a makhalidwe abwino. Kumbali inayi inali yoyenera ku Turkey chifukwa cha 1858.

Ku Saudi Arabia, chilango cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha chikanakhala kukhazikitsidwa pakati pa anthu, komabe, ife boma la boma lingathe kugwira ntchito ndi zilango zosiyana - mwachitsanzo, chilango, nthawi ya ndende, ndi kulembedwa - monga njira zina, kupatula ngati zikuoneka kuti LGBT Amuna ndi amai ndi ulamuliro wolimba wa fuko kuchokera ku gulu la LGBT. Iran ndi boma lochita kuchuluka kwa nzika zake. Ngakhale kuti kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kwafalikira pakati pa mtundu wa Pashtun ku Afghanistan, pambuyo pa kugwa kwa Taliban, kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunasunthira munthu amene adalangidwa chifukwa cha milandu ya ndende, chilango, komanso chiwawa chochotsera ndalama.

Makampani ambiri a ufulu waumunthu, mwachitsanzo monga Human Connections akuphatikizapo akuluakulu ovomerezeka pazolakwa. Mayiko akunena kuti malamulowa ndi ofunikira kuti azikhala ndi makhalidwe abwino achi Islam. Mwa maiko omwe ali ndi ambiri a Asilamu a Lebanon ndi Tunisia ali ndi mabungwe Amene akufuna kupeza malamulo.

India ndi Asia East kukana

Ndipo kugonana, kugonana amuna ndi akazi okhaokha komanso Taoism, ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ku China

Pazinthu za zipembedzo zomwe zinayambira ku India, monga Chihindu, Buddhism, Jainism ndi Sikhism, ziphunzitso zikuwonekera poyerekeza ndi umodzi wa miyambo ya Abrahamu. Mosiyana ndi zipembedzo, kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumatchulidwa. Vasubandhu anawonjezera imodzi mwa zipatala zomwe zinkaletsedwa chifukwa cha kuyanjana ndi makasitomala, komanso Dalai Lama adanena kuti chilengedwe chimafuna kugwirizana ndi kukhala ndi kuchepetsa kugonana komweko. Kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumakhulupirira kuti ndi kosemphana ndi malamulo a Sikh, chifukwa mwina sikunatchulidwe m'malemba a Sikh ndipo kuchokera ku Sikh akuitanidwa kukwatirana, koma chinthu ichi sichiri chofunikira. Mu 2005the Mtsogoleri wa Mutu wa Akal Takht adatsutsa mgwirizano womwewo wa chigwirizano, Chihindu chimagwirizanitsa, popanda kulamulira thupi laumunthu, komabe ambiri amayerekezera malingaliro a kugonana kwa uzimu pakati pa chisankho cha 2004, kuphatikizapo ochepa omwe adawalimbikitsa. Palibe mafotokozedwe a kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kuchokera m'malemba Achihindu kuphatikizapo nkhaniyi, komabe popeza Chihindu chimakhulupirira kuti ndi udindo wokwatira ndi kukhala ndi mayanjano a ana omwe amalingalira zonse.

Scientologist kukana

Scientologist Mlengi L. Ron Hubbard adagwiritsira ntchito kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha monga matenda opatsirana pogonana komanso kutchulidwa kwachiwerewere (kutchulidwa kuti "kugonana kwachinyengo"), kutchula zochitika za masiku ano zamaganizo ndi zamaganizo kuti azilimbikitsa maganizo ake. Hubbard analimbikitsa chikhalidwe chamakono kuti chigonjetse nkhani ya "kupotoka kwa kugonana" (komwe kumaphatikizapo kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha), akuneneratu kuti "chofunika kwambiri, ngati wina akufuna kusiya chiwerewere, ndi kuzunza ana.

Nkhani ya 2004 yochokera ku St. Petersburg Times inati mpingo ukufotokozera ukwati ngati ukwati pakati pa mayi ndi mnyamata. Chaka chotsatira, poyankha funso lina ponena za momwe Mpingo umayendera pa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, Church of Scientology ku 2005 inati: "The Church of Scientology sichimafuna kugonana.

Health

Onaninso: Matenda a LGBT mu mankhwala

Kufotokozera mwachidule maphunziro ku UK akusonyeza kuti pali umboni wochepa wopezapo chifukwa kafukufuku mwina sakhala ndi gawo limodzi m'magulu owerengera omwe angagwiritse ntchito zokhudzana ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna okhaokha, amuna okhaokha, amuna okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Kufufuza kumeneku kunapezeka kuchokera kufukufuku komwe kuli ku UK, palibe kusiyana kulikonse pakati pa abambo ndi abambo a LGBT lerolino komanso anthu omwe amadziwika, koma anthu ambiri a LGBT amawoneka ofooka, koma opanda chidziwitso china zikuluzikulu ndi zofala, nthawi yaitali kapena khansa bwino. Zotsatira za kafukufuku ku mavuto omwe achinyamata amakumana nawo, mwachitsanzo monga chitsanzo cha LGBT anthu omwe amawongolera ngati kuwonjezera kukhumudwa, kudzipha komanso matenda ena a m'maganizo mukamakula, pakubereka, kumenyana, ndi kusankhana. Kafukufuku wina akuphunzira za zotsatira za nthawi yaitali zauchidakwa m'mayunivesiti, 'komanso kuphatikizapo kafukufuku wamakhalidwe a anthu akugwirizana kwambiri ndi momwe abambo ndi amai a LGBT amatha kukhalira ndi njira zoyenera kuti apeze thanzi, pamodzi ndi zotsatira zake zomwe.

Otsutsa ochepa a LGBT amanena kuti ali ndi luso lokula mmwamba mwa LGBT kumabweretsa mavuto a thanzi labwino m'kukula msinkhu, komanso zolepheretsa kupeza thanzi labwino lomwe limakula popereka thanzi; komabe iwo amanena kuti ufulu wa LGBT walamulo ndi wofunikira kwambiri kuti kuchepetsa kusintha kwa nkhani zachipatala ndikuonetsetsa kuti kugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zamankhwala. Kubwerera ku '09 Akuluakulu a LGBT a ku Canada adandilembera kalata yokhudzana ndi ubwino wa a LGB a Canada omwe amanyalanyazidwa ndi akuluakulu a boma, amalephera kuphwanya ufulu wawo wa abambo ndi amai a LGBT. Otsutsawo amatsitsa chiyembekezo chokhalitsa moyo wamba kuposa amuna ndi akazi a LGB, pogwiritsa ntchito chimfine chachikulu pamodzi ndi kachilombo ka HIV ndi kuledzera, kudzipha ndi mankhwala.

Kutsutsidwa m'mayiko osiyanasiyana

Gawo ili lalembedwa ngati mawonetseredwe kapena nkhani ya Remark yomwe imati malemba a Wikipedia okhudza nkhani. Muyenera kuthandizira pozijambula mu 11 yolemba mabuku, kulimbikitseni. (July 2015) (Phunzirani momwe mungathetsere template yapaderayi)

Belarus

Ngakhale lipoti la 2014 likukonzekera ku United Kingdom, pansi pa bungwe la Conservative and Liberal Democrat coalition of 2010 - 2015, kudandaula kwowonjezereka pankhani ya mankhwala a LGBT ku Belarus:

Ngakhale LGBT Group inapirira kuzunzidwa ndi regimen mu 2013. Ngakhalenso Ministry of Justice inakana kulembetsa maphunziro a LGBT, komanso anthu a m'dera la LGBT ankawonekera nthawi zonse ku mabungwe a chitetezo ndipo amachititsa kuti afunse mafunso. Apolisi adawopseza kuti awadzudzula abwenzi m'mabanja awa, kapena antchito anzawo. Zipinda za usiku ku Minsk ndi Vitebsk zakhazikitsidwa, ndipo onse omwe alipo anali atasindikizidwa ndipo 'zolemba zawo zinawonjezeka. Malo otsegula usiku anali otsekedwa. Sabata lachidziwitso la Gay ku Minsk linasokonezedwa ndi apolisi omwe adakankhira malo okhalamo kuti adziwe pachiwiri cham'mbuyomu. Akuluakulu a boma adasokoneza zomwe zinachitikazo, komanso boma linapempha pempho kuti liwononge mzindawu.

India

Pakati pa October 6, 1860, zachiwerewere zinaletsedwa ku India Izi zalamulidwa zosagwirizana ndi malamulo mu '09 ku Delhi High Court, komabe, adatsimikizira December 2013 ndi chiweruzo cha Supreme Court. Ilo linavomerezedwa ndi Supreme Court 6 September 2018.

Russia

Otsatira LGBT ku Moscow, awiri March 2013

Kutsutsidwa mu kayendetsedwe ka ufulu wa LGBT Ndi kofala ku Russia, monga pamwamba pa Kremlin. Purezidenti Vladimir Putin adalamula malamulo ku 2012 kuti aphwanya malamulo onena za mavuto a LGBT, amatcha "gay propaganda". Komanso Western Europe akuyitanitsa kuti azitha kuwombera masewera a Olimpiki a 2014 ku Sochi. Ngakhale Purezidenti Putin adalonjeza kuti ochita masewerawa amalemekezedwa, mosasamala kanthu kuti palibe chomwe chikuchitika.

Lamuloli linafotokozedwa ngati kuvomereza gulu la LGBT ku Russia "kuti lisakhale gulu lachinyengo la adani a boma", ndipo adafotokozedwanso kuti ndilo gawo lotsogolera lachiwawa cha Anti Gay ndi mabungwe osiyanasiyana a Nazi (mwachitsanzo , Occupy Pedophilia), yomwe imawunikira achinyamata omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndikugwirizana nawo, akugonjera YouTube zochita zawo zotsutsana ndi achinyamata a LGB, zomwe zinapangitsa kuti achinyamata a LGB apite ku Russia, omwe angafufuzidwe kuchokera ku boma , kuwapanga ngati "kayendetsedwe ka boma kumenyana ndi machimo a anthu".

United Kingdom

Kubwerera ku 1988, British Conservative Party, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa mu Boma panthawiyi, idakhazikitsa gawo la 28 lomwe linanena kuti maboma a m'madera sayenera "kulimbikitsa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena kulengeza zinthu n'cholinga cholimbikitsa kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha" kulimbikitsa chiphunzitso cha kuvomereza kwa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ", kufotokozera ammudzi pamodzi ndi makolo ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kuti akhale" pachibwenzi ".Kufufuza zotsatira za kufufuza chidziwitso chokhudza chidziwitso cha uzimu m'mabungwe a maphunziro kunavumbulutsira makalata pamodzi ndi zopindulitsa Kuphwanya malamulo ndi abwenzi, kuphatikizapo kuwonjezeka kwa chiwerengero cha anthu akudzipha ndi kudzipha pakati pa LGBT anthu akuyesera kubwerera kumalo awo ogonana. Mu 1987, '' Thatcher adalengeza kuti "akuluakulu apamwamba a maphunziro ndi aphunzitsi okhwima" anali ataphunzitsanso boma mwa kulangiza chimodzimodzi chilengedwe chaching'ono "zolemba zandale", "otsutsa-racist masamu" ndi kuwauza ophunzira kuti ali ndi "ufulu wosayenerera", mmalo mwa "kuphunzitsidwa kulemekeza chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe".

Koma, ngakhale kuti a Conservatives amatsutsa monga David Cameron, Gawo 28 linapezedwa kuchokera ku boma la Labor pansi pa Tony Blair.

Kubwerera mu June 2009, David Cameron, ngakhale kuti ankafuna kugwira ntchito monga Pulezidenti Wachiŵiri, adakhumudwitsa amuna ndi akazi ndipo anapepesa mwalamulo kuti akuwonetsa kuti lamuloli ndilolakwika.

Kubwerera mu mgwirizano wa 2013 unalembedwa mwalamulo pansi pa Cameron's Direction, kuti Cameron adafotokoza kuti "chinthu chofunika kwambiri" ndipo adanena kuti "ndibwino kuti anthu achiwerewere akhoze kukwatira".

Liwu la Opposition ku LGBT kulingana ku UK tsopano Likubwera mu Mpingo wa England mkati mwa vuto la kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Ntchito yovomerezeka ku 2005 ubwino wokhala nawo mgwirizano wophatikizapo mgwirizano wa boma, komatu sizingatheke kuchitika pa tchalitchi kapena kutchulidwa kuti "ukwati." Ngakhale mpingo wa England unkayerekezedwa ndi boma lachigwirizano zolinga (utsogoleri umenewu unatsimikizika mu May 2015) kuti uonjezere izi kukhala "ufulu wolowa m'banja."

Bungwe la British National Party lasintha pulogalamu yake yowonjezeranso ku Recriminalization kuti yowonjezereka kwa malamulo a kalembedwe ka 28, mwachitsanzo, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti izi zisalowere kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha pamalo abwino ochezera a pa Intaneti. Mu 1999, bar Admiral Duncan, malo osungirana amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ku Soho, ku London, akuyang'ana mmwamba monga gawo la zankhanza ndi National Socialist Movement komanso British National Party (BNP) mwamuna, David Copeland; anthu pafupifupi 3 anaphedwa, komanso 70 olumala kapena ovulala pogwiritsa ntchito bomba la msomali lochokera ku bar.

United States

Kuchokera ku 1950s ku United States, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumakhala kovuta. Malamulo mudziko lirilonse adapereka lamulo loletsa khalidwe lachiwerewere. Pulezidenti Kenneth Wherry anafalitsa nkhawa kuti Joseph Stalin adapeza mndandanda wa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, omwe amachititsa kuti azimayi azigonana azikhala ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. m'malo amagetsi a magetsi ku Adolf Hitler, amaganiza kuti Stalin amayenera kugwiritsira ntchito kuti awononge anyamatawa kuti azichita mosiyana ndi US kuti apeze Soviet regimen. Mu lipoti la 1950 Linapangidwa ndi Komiti Yachigawo ya Senate Kuwonjezera pa Chisamaliro ichi, mbiri Anthu omwe amagonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha sagwirizana ndi akuluakulu ogwira ntchito ntchito makamaka kuyambira "anthu omwe amachita zinthu zambiri zowonjezera zogwiritsira ntchito zowonjezera zowonjezera zowononga amuna okhaokha a ku America kuyambira zida zowonjezera zowonjezera.

Mulungu wachikondi Greek milungu ndi zipembedzo mkati mwake, mwachitsanzo The Erotes: Eros, Himeros ndi Pothos amodzi adatengedwa oyang'anira chikondi chonse pakati pa amuna. Eros ndikuthamangitsa ena mwa milungu itatu yomwe imachita zizindikiro pakati pa machitidwe osiyana-siyana, ophatikizana ndi Hermes, omwe amatsutsa makhalidwe a Kukongola (ndi kukhulupirika), potency, pambali ya kalembedwe . Mu ndakatulo ya Sappho, mulungu wachi Greek amatchedwa woyang'anira onse osokoneza ubongo. Aphroditus wakhala ali mulungu wachi Greek kuchokera ku Cyprus, mu nthano zomwe zakhala zikukulirakulira zidakula ndikudziwika ngati mulungu wachi Greek mwana wa Hermes ndi mulungu wachi Greek.

Mu Ovid's Metamorphosis Iphis ikubwera ndi kusintha kwa amuna.

Malinga ndi Buku la XII la Ovid's Metamorphoses, wokondwerera Lapith wa Thessaly, Caeneus, anali munthu wopandukira. Ankadziwika kuti Caenis, mtsikana wa Atrax.

Norse

"Freyr" (1901) wochokera ku Johannes Gehrts.

Sagas kuchokera ku chijeremani samaphatikizapo nkhani iliyonse yokhudzana ndi amuna okhaokha kapena amuna okhaokha kapena amuna okhaokha, kapena kutsogolera maonekedwe a LGBT, komabe iwo sangaphatikizepo chimodzi kapena ziwiri zochimwa zomwe amamangidwa ndi anyamata omwe amatsutsa kuti akhale ogwirizana kwambiri pakati pa kugonana, komwe amakhulupirira kuti "khalidwe lachimuna" ndi chiwonongeko kuimirira kwa munthu chifukwa cha munthu kapena mtsogoleri.

Ngakhale zili choncho, zakhala zosavuta kumva kuti mulungu wa Norse, Mulungu Wachibadwidwe wadziko lapansi, adzachotsedwa ndikuwonetsa kuti gulu la amonke, ngakhale limodzi ndi a mbiri yakale a Gesta Danorum. Odin amatchulidwa kukhala wodziwa za seiðr, '' mawonekedwe achilengedwe amakhulupirira kuti wakuda akuyesa ndikuchita atayikidwa kwa atsikana. [zofunikanso] mwinamwake mwambo wa seiðr miyambo yomwe inkakhala yosavomerezeka, pamodzi ndi Odin adanyozedwa chifukwa chaichi.

Kuphatikiza apo, mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya milungu ya Norseyi imagwira ntchito poyambitsa matenda opatsirana pogonana Kugonana, monga Loki, mulungu wonyenga amadzipanga yekha ngati mtsikana. '' iye anatembenuka ndipo, atagonana ndi Svaðilfari yonse, iye anabala. Mayankho a mnyamatayo kwa mtsikana amene akubereka amasonyeza kuti nthawi zambiri amanyansidwa nawo ku Scandinavia, palimodzi mfundo zambiri zimati Loki adakalibe pabanja.

Celt

M'nthano za Celtic maubwenzi a zibwenzi alipo. Olemba mabuku achi Greek ndi Aroma amanena za kugonana pakati pa amuna, mwachitsanzo, pedophilia, kwa mafuko a Celtic. koma, Peter Chicheri akunena za chikhalidwe cha Celtic: mphamvu zamagetsi, mapulaneti, pambali ya mitu yomwe chikondi chaukwati chidzudzulidwa mu chitukuko cha a Celtic chifukwa chotsutsana ndi Chikhristu, ndipo amasonyeza kuti palibe vuto lililonse la kugonana lomwe silinabweretsepo kuyambira pamapeto pake.

Mawerengedwe ena a malemba ngakhale athandiza maphunziro a LGBT, monga chithunzi, umunthu ndi abale omwe akuthandizira Cúchulainn ndi Ferdiadh amamasuliridwa ngati bungwe la (BI). kamodzi kukakamizidwa kuti apambane ndi njira ina iliyonse, '' Ferdiadh amatchula kukambirana kwawo mabedi, '' ndipo akhala akuganiza kuti ali ndi zonse zomwe zikuchitika mmawa wovuta kwambiri wa kukupsyopsyona ndi nkhondo. Pomwe kamodzi ka 3, Cúchulainn akugonjetsa Ferdiadh podula malo ake omwe anali nawo pambali pa "chida chake chodabwitsa" Gáe Bul. Nkhaniyi yawonetsa kuti "achimuna okonda nkhondo" achi Greek, pamodzi ndi Cúchulainn akuchitapo kanthu kuti Ferdiad apite patsogolo posiyana ndi chilakolako cha Achilles kwa Patrocles.

Nthano za ku Asia

  1. Werner.

Nthano zachi China zakhala zikuimira "olemera mu Umboni wokhudzana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha." Chikhulupiliro cha amuna okhaokha chomwe amakhulupirira kuti chinali nacho chinachokera kum'mwera kwenikweni, choncho kugonana kumatchedwa "Southern End". Zilonda za ku China "nthawi zonse zimayamika ndi kugonana ndi anyamata achikulire", chitsanzo chimodzi chiri m'nkhani ya "Old Farmer kumbali ya Mgwirizano Wachiwiri", momwe mlimi waku makumi asanu ndi limodzi alimbikitsidwa ndi chinjoka chodutsa, kumayambitsa mabala kuchokera kulowera ndi kuluma omwe amafunikira thandizo lachipatala. Dzina lake limatanthauza "mulungu". Malinga ndi "Nkhani ya Kalulu Wa Mulungu" mkati mwa Zi Bu Yu, Tu Er Shen poyamba anali munthu wodziwika kuti Hu Tianbao, WHO adagwa ndi mfumukazi wokongola wa mfumu ya Fujian Province .

Kwa zaka zikwi zambiri, amuna amasiye adatchulidwa m'mabuku ponena za 2 chiwerengero chodziwika bwino cha mzera woyamba. Choyambirira chinali Mizi Xia ndipo patsiku lomwe adadyedwa ndi theka lomwe adagwirizana ndi wokondedwa wake, wolemba mbiri, Duke Ling wa Wei. Wachiŵiri anali Ambuye Long principle, WHO inalimbikitsa kuti Mfumu Yachifumu ya Wei yopanda dzina ikhalebe odzipereka kwa iye pakudzipenda yekha ku nsomba zazing'ono kuti Mfumu ikhale kumwamba ngati nsomba ikuluikulu idafika. pamene Mizi Xia ndi Lord Long mfundo zonse zikanakhalapodi, palibe zomwe zimamveka ponena za nkhani zawo, ndipo kukhalapo kwawo ku Chinese mabuku kunali kwakukulu kwambiri kwa anthu omwe anali otchuka omwe ankatumikira monga archetypes ya chikondi chogonana.

Japanese

Malingana ndi chikhalidwe cha Japan ndi nthano, kugonana kunayambika padziko lapansi ndi Shinu No Hafuri ndi wokondedwa wake Ama No Hafuri. Awa anali antchito a mulungu wachiaboriki, mwinamwake mulungu dzuwa mulungu wa Chijapani. Amayi a Shinu atamwalira, Amayi adadzipha chifukwa cha chisoni, choncho azimayi awiriwo anaikidwa m'manda omwewo. Ponena za nkhaniyi, dzuŵa silinayambe kuwalira pamanda mpaka okondedwawo atasokonezedwa ndikuikidwa m'manda, ngakhale kuti cholakwa cha dzuwa chimakhala chifukwa cha kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha sizowonekera.

M'nkhani ina, milungu ya Chijeremani imabwerera kumenyana limodzi ndi mchimwene wake Susanoo kuphanga, kutaya dziko la masana ndi moyo. Ame No Uzume, amachititsa kuti azitha kugonana ndi chiwalo chogonana komanso chiwalo chogonana, komanso kuti azisangalala ndi chikhalidwe chawo. Pa Amaterasu potuluka m'phangamo, transgami Kami Ishi Kori Dome anachedwa kalirole kakang'ono, kotero kuvina kwake ndi kusinkhasinkha kwake kumakondweretsa mulungu wa Chijapani kwambiri kotero kuti sakuwona mizimu yina yomwe imatsekera khomo la mphanga kumbuyo kwake.

Milungu ya Shinto imakhudzidwa ndi zinthu zonse za moyo, komanso zotsatira za shudo WAMUNA wamkulu wodabwitsa wokhala wachikondi wamwamuna ndi mwamuna wake, "Shudo Daimyojin", alipo m'magulu ena a Shinto, komabe siofupi ndi khalidwe la Shinto.

Kami ina yokhudzana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena kusiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi ndi awa: Shirabyoshi, mkazi kapena transmasculine Kami, wotchulidwa ngati theka-umunthu, njoka. Amagwirizana ndi amonke a Shinto omwe ali ndi dzina lofanana, omwe nthawi zina amadzi (kapena abambo osiyana) komanso amachita masewera olimbitsa zovala zapachimbudzi; Oyamakui, mzimu wamapiri wotchedwa transgender umene umateteza malonda ndi kubereka; Inari, Kami wa ulimi ndi mpunga, WHO imafotokozedwa ngati amtundu osiyanasiyana, zomwe zimaimira kuti ndi mulungu wa chakudya chamadzi, ANTHU wam'mbuyo akutenga mpunga, ANd epicene immortal . Inari ndi zowonjezereka zokhudzana ndi nkhandwe ndi Kitsune. Kitsune amadzibisa okha ngati atsikana, osasamala za amuna awo enieni, kuti amunamize amuna kuti azigonana nawo. Chikhulupiriro chofala ku Japan chakumadzulo chinali chakuti mtsikana aliyense amene anakumana naye yekha, makamaka usiku kapena usiku, akhoza kukhala nkhandwe.

Chihindu

  • Shiva ndi mulungu wachihindu mwa mtundu wa Ardhanarisvara
  • Nkhani yaikulu: Mitu ya LGBT mu nthano zachihindu
  • Onaninso: nkhani za LGBT ndi Chihindu

"" Chikhalidwe cha Chihindu chinali ndi dongosolo lodziwika bwino la anthu awa m'mbuyomu. Pakali pano ife tawaika iwo pansi pa liwu limodzi la 'LGBT', pali tonong'onong'o zambiri ndi zina zomwe zimadziwika kuti zadziwika. "

Gopi Ravi Shankar Madurai ku National Queer Conference 2013

Nthano zakale zimaphatikizapo zochitika zosawerengeka za mulungu Kugonana, kuwonetsera pazochitika zosiyanasiyana monga kugonana, kapena mwinamwake kuphatikizapo kupanga epicene kapena zolengedwa. Milungu imasintha kugonana kapena kuwonetsa mkati mwa ANTHU a mchitidwe wawo wosiyana pakati pa amuna ndi akazi kotero pochepetsa msonkhano. Zomwe sizinthu zaumulungu kuti zidziwitse zowonjezera zimapangitsa zotsatira za madalitso kapena matemberero, kapena chifukwa cha zotsatira za kuberekanso.

Nthano zachihindu zimaphatikizapo zochitika paliponse pokhapokha zofunikira Zolinga zopatulika zimagwiridwa ndi Maubwenzi azinthu zowonjezera. Nthawi ndi nthawi mafananidwe amenewa amatsutsidwa ndi milungu koma nthawi zina amafunikira chakudya chawo.

Kuphatikiza pa nkhani za kusiyana pakati pa zachiwerewere ndi kugonana zomwe zimavomerezedwa ndi Chihindu chachikuru cha mtsinje, kufikira panthawi yomwe ophunzira ndi alangizi opanga maimiliro atsindika mitu ya LGBT kapena amawafotokozera m'nkhani zomwe zimawoneka kuti zilibe mawu alionse. Kusagwirizana kumayambitsidwa ndi kufufuza ponena za kufunika kwa nkhani.

Chibuda

Onaninso: Nkhani za LGBT ndi Buddhism

M'malemba a chikhalidwe cha Chibuddha sakudziwitsanso kugonana komweku. Malamulo ambiri a chikhalidwe cha Buddhist amachokera m'nkhani ndi Icho, ndipo nthano ndi zoona ndi maganizo achi Buddhist a LGBT amuna ndi akazi. kuti apange chitsanzo, malamulo omwe amalamulira ansembe a LGBT m'magulu ochepa kwambiri amachokera kukutanthauzira kwa epic Mahavagga. Pandakavathu ndi gawo la ntchito yeniyeni, Nkhani za "pandaka" (anthu ogonana kapena kugonana) ndi Associated. mu nkhani yeniyeni, njira yoyamba yomwe gulu la amonke a Elephant, ndi gulu la oyamba kumene amafunsa anthu m'kalasi lirilonse kuti "aipitse" iwo. ngakhale zitasinthidwa kutsogolo ndi nthawi popanda ntchito, Zochitikazo zimapanga chikhumbo chazinthu zonse zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ponena za amonkewo, ngakhale zimatsogolera Buddha kukhala zikondamoyo za tavern kuchokera ku unsembe wanu.

Malingana ndi Cabezón ndi Greenberg, izi sizikugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti zikhazikitse anthu, ndipo nkhani za Chibuda zimakhala ndi ziwonetsero za kugonana komweko komwe kunali kosagonana. Zonsezi zimakhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi maumboni a "Jataka" (mbiri za ku India za moyo wa Buddha), kumene Buddha amakhala pafupi ndi munthu wodzipereka. Muzochitika zingapo amatha kubwereranso pamodzi monga ndalama zowonongeka, "kuyendayenda, kukondwera, kukondwa, kutsogolo, kupaka phokoso, lipenga la nyanga." Ngakhale mwina sichiwonetsedwa chifukwa chokonda, kugwirizana pakati pa anyamata kumalimbikitsa, komanso kuyerekezera ndi maubwenzi onse okhwima kwa akazi ochenjera.Kubvumbulutsabe, sagwirizana ndi kunena kuti chikondi ndi chiyani ndipo mwinamwake sichikugwirizana kwenikweni.

Mu Thai Theravada Buddhism, malipoti amasonyeza kuti "kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kumawoneka ngati zotsatira za karmic chifukwa chophwanya malemba a Chibuda chifukwa cha khalidwe losachita chiwerewere" pa chikhalidwe cha Thai Buddhist momwemonso amamverera wophunzira Ananda kuti azichita zinthu zambiri monga mkazi, komanso pomalizira pake Nthawi zonse moyo wawo umakhala wosasinthasintha. Ananda wotchuka chifukwa cha malingaliro awo, amatsitsimodzinso ndi otchuka. Pa nkhani ya 1 ya zochepa za moyo, Ananda adasanduka yogi yomwe inagwera kwambiri mu chikondi chakuda kukhala ndi Naga, njoka King of Indian folklore, amene anawombera mwanayo. Kugwirizana kumeneku kunasanduka thupi, kumamupangitsa Ananda kuti agwetse kukhudza, pofuna kupewa kutengeka.

Malinga ndi nthano, chikondi cha munthu chidatulutsidwa Kwa Japan kuchokera kwa Mlengi wa Chipembedzo Choona ichi (Shingon) cha Japanese Buddhism esoteric, Kukai. Akatswiri a mbiri yakale amanena kuti izi sizolondola, koma chifukwa Kukai wakhala gulu la malamulo. Zina za Bodhisattvas zimasintha amuna ndi akazi m'njira zosiyanasiyana, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti nthawi zina azigwirizana ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Guanyin, Avalokitesvara, ndi Tara akhala akudziwika kuti ali ndi ziwalo zogonana.

Philippines

Kubwerera ku Philippines, makamaka m'madera Omwe pamodzi ndi maufumu, nkhani za mulungu wa Imfa, '' Sidapa. Sidapa ikuwonetsedwa ngati wokongola komanso yamphamvu ndipo nayenso akumenyana ndi mulungu wa nkhondo, Macanduc, komanso mulungu wamkazi wa mafundewa kuti athandize munthu wokonda chidwiyo kuti amutsatire: mnyamata wina. Mulungu wa kuchoka anathamangitsira imodzi mwa mulungu wokongola wamwezi: Bulan mnyamata akukwera. Chibwenzi chawo chidzakhala chitsanzo chabwino cha Pederasty. Nthano imalongosola njira yomwe inkawonera kukongola kwa mwezi kwa mweziwo ndipo imafuna iwo koma iye ankakangana. Anamenyana ndi kugonjetsa mulungu wamkazi komanso milungu yonseyo. Mnyamata yemwe amakhala kumlengalenga anathamangitsidwa ndi iye. Mulungu wodutsa akukonzekeretsa otsogolera komanso osangalatsa kuyimba nsanje kwa mwana wanu wam'mwamba. Kuonjezera apo, anapempha maluwawo kuti apange maluwa ndi mapuloteni a Bulan, komaliza koma mosakayikira adapereka mowonongeka m'mapiko a moto kotero kuti mlengalenga wachinyamata amatsikira momwe angagwirizane. Nkhani zimatchula kuti Bulan inali yachilungamo ndi zovuta zowonjezereka zomwe zinakula kuti mbalame ndi nsomba zimakonda kusambira ndikuuluka. Sidapa anasankha mwanayo kukhala mkwatibwi wake wachinyamata komanso nthano zachikhalidwe komanso ambiri oyendetsa sitima amaganiza kuti amakhala pamodzi ogona mu mikono ya Mzake ku Mt. Majaas, ochokera ku boma la Antique

Nthano za ku Africa

West African, Yoruba komanso Dahomean (Vodun)

Woyambitsa mulungu wa nthano zonse za Dahomey ndi. Mawu-Lisa, opangidwa ndi mgwirizano wa alongo awo awiri ndi zipembedzo za mchimwene Lisa (mwezi) komanso Mawa (dzuwa). Pa mgwirizano, iwo amawoneka ngati kugonana kapena kugonana (ndi kugonana kosintha). Zipembedzo zina zimaphatikizapo Nana Buluku, "Mayi Wamkulu" amene anabereka Lisa ndi Mawa ndipo adabala dziko lapansi, akuphatikizapo amayi ndi amuna.

A Akan a ku Ghana ali ndi mulungu wa milungu yomwe imaphatikizapo maonekedwe a matupi. Zonsezi zimatsimikiziridwa kuti ndi milungu yonyansa kapena yoledzeretsa, imaphatikizaponso Abrao (Jupiter), mwachitsanzo Aku (Mercury), mofanana ndi Awo (mwezi).

Kukhala ndi zakumwa zoledzeretsa tsopano ndi gawo lofunikira la miyambo ya chipembedzo cha Chiyoruba ndi zina za Africa. Anthu omwe amakhala nawo nthawi zambiri amakhala amayi, koma amatha kugwira ntchito ngati amuna akuluakulu, komanso amuna omwe amachitira amuna okhaokha amawoneka ngati "mkwatibwi" waumulungu wawo. -zipembedzo za ku America, koma palibe kugwirizana pakati pa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena kugonana kapena ntchito yogonana nthawi zonse.

Zimbabwe

Nthano za anthu a Chimangazi a ku Zimbabwe zikulamuliridwa ndi mulungu wolemba zachipembedzo wotchedwa Mulungu, womwe umagawidwa kuti ukhale mkazi ndi mwamuna.

Aigupto

Zizindikiro za kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ziripo ku Aigupto pamodzi ndi zomwe zolembedwa kwambiri ndi zojambula zikuimira kugonana kosasintha. Zomwe zilipo zimatsimikizira kuti kugwirizana kwa samesex kunkaonongedwa, komanso kuti kugonana komweku kumakhala kuyendetsa mphamvu ndi ulamuliro, wakuda mwa wolandira, nthawi zambiri kuchokera ku madera a Mediterranean.

Mwambo Wolemekezeka Kwambiri wa izo zikuchitika mukumenyana kwa Mphamvu kwa mulungu wanu wa kumwamba Horus, komanso amalume ake Set kuti mulungu woopsa wa m'chipululu muno. Kukhazikitsa zoyesayesa zowona kuti ndizochita bwino zimaphatikizapo njira zonyenga, poyamika Horus pa bulu lake ndikuyesera kuti alowe mkati mwake. Kulephereka, Khalani okonzeka pakati pa ntchafu za Horus, motero mulole Horus kuti asonkhanitse mbidzi yake. Akhazikitsa kuti akugonjetsa makampani a inshuwalansi a Horus "adamuchitira nkhanza" Horus ndiye akuyendetsa m'nyanjayi, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mwina sangaganizidwe kuti atha kufotokozedwa ndi Set Horus. Tsamba, lomwe lakhala la Set limakonda zakudya (zomwe Aigupto ankaganiza kuti letesiyo inali yonyansa). Pamene Adaika kale la letesi amayesa ndikubwezeretsanso zokambiranazo motsatira mfundo ya Egypt. Milungu imamvetsera lonjezo la Kulamulira mkati mwa Horus, nayenso amaimbira foni mbanda yake koma imayankha motsutsana ndi nyanjayi, kusokoneza lonjezo lake. Milungu imamva kuti Horus adanena kuti ali ndi ulamuliro wolamulira, ndipo amachititsa kuti azitulutsa mphamvu yake, ndipo imayankha kuchokera mkati mwake. Horus ndi Set anali ovomerezeka, ngati osayenera, ndi Kugwiritsa ntchito mbeu ya Horus kunapangitsa kuti disti ya lunth ya mwezi ikhale yabwino. mpaka kumapeto kwa cholowa cha Aigupto, komanso zochitika zaumunthu zinalembedwa ngati zoyambirira.

Kubereka kwa munthu aliyense kunatsimikiziridwa kuti ndi mbali yofunika kwambiri ya nthano za ku Aigupto, komanso Zinakondweretsa kugwiritsa ntchito kubereketsa kwachonde komwe kunaperekedwa ndi madzi osefukira a mtsinje wa Nile. Chiyanjano ichi chinayambira pa kujambula zithunzi za milungu yonse ya Nile, mwachitsanzo Wachimwemwe, mulungu wa Mtsinje wa Nile, komanso Wadj-wer, mulungu wa Nile Delta, kuti ngakhale amuna anawonetsedwa pamodzi ndi makhalidwe onse achikazi monga mabere osakondweretsa, ndikuyimira chiberekero chomwe nyanja ikupereka.

Nthano za Oceania

  • Aboriginal a ku Australia

Anthu achibadwidwe a Australia ali ndi Chikhulupiliro chokhwima, kuphatikizapo gulu la milungu. Njoka ya utawaleza mulungu Ungud idatchulidwa ngati transgender kapena androgynous. Shaman malo awo ogwirana pamodzi pogwiritsa ntchito Ungud, kuphatikizapo chikhulupiliro chake chimapangitsa kanthawi kuti azindikire kuti ali ndi umuna. Angamunggi ndi mulungu wa njoka ya njoka ya utawaleza, wopembedza kukhala "wopatsa moyo".

Zolemba zina za ku Australia zimaphatikizapo amayi a abambo a Labarindja, opangidwa ndi Buluu kapena "azimayi achiwanda" pamodzi ndi tsitsi lomwe liri mthunzi wa utsi. Nkhani zokhudzana ndi izi zimasonyeza kuti izi zimatopa kwathunthu ndi chikondi kapena kugonana ndi anyamata achikulire, pamodzi ndi mwamuna wina amene amamukakamiza kuti awonongeke, akhoza kuwonongeka chifukwa cha "matsenga oipa". Kuonjezera apo, iwo awonetsedwa ngati intersex kapena gynandrous, pogwiritsa ntchito mbolo ndi mkazi. Kukhala ndi udindo wawo ndi anyamata mu zovala za akazi kumaimira mwambo umenewo.

Zipembedzo zimaphatikizapo anthu ambirimbiri. Mizimu ingapo imayendera ndi anzawo omwe amagonana nawo monga "aikane", mawu ozungulira ubwenzi wapamtima komanso chikondi chogonana, nthawi zambiri pazochitika zogonana.

Wahineomo, mulungu wamkazi wa nthano za ku Hawaii yemwe dzina lake limatanthauzira "kukwatira mkazi", limawonetsedwa mu kugwirizana pamodzi ndi azimayi osiyana a Hi'iaka komanso Hopoe. Pamene Hi'iaka ankayenera kukhala ndi mwamuna wake wa Pele, ndiye kuti mulungu wamkazi woyamba wa Phiri anapha Hapoe wokondedwa wa Hi'iaka. Kuwonjezera pa Wahineomo pamodzi ndi Hopoe, Hi'iaka adagonana pamodzi ndi mulungu wamkazi Pauopalae pamodzi ndi Pele-odzipereka Omeo. Omeo anali gawo la zotsatirazi zomwe zinakopeka ndi Prince Lohiau wogonana pogonana mu Pele mwamsanga pomwe adachoka. Kwa moyo wake wonse Lohiau anali wokonda kwambiri mkazi wa Pele ndi Paoa.

Zipembedzo zina za polynesiya za LGBT zimaphatikizapo Pala-Mao ndi Kumi-Kahi, kuphatikizapo mulungu wamkazi wa chiwerewere wotchedwa Haakauilanani, yemwe anali mtumiki wamba ndi "mayi" wapadziko lapansi, dzina lake Papa, komanso mkazi wake Wakea. Mawerengero a LGBT amakhalansopo mu nthano za Polynesian, 'monga mwachitsanzo chitsanzo cha Pakaa wamunthu (komanso mwamuna wake wamkulu) ndi Keawe-Nui-A-'umi, ndi msodzi wotchuka Nihooleki, amene anakwatira mkazi komanso adali paubwenzi ndi mulungu wa nkhumba Kamapua'a.

Pakati pa milungu yawo, Ngaju Dayak wa ku Borneo amalambira Mahatala-Jata, mulungu wonyenga kapena wopanduka. Gawo lachimuna la mulungu uyu ndi Mahatala, yemwe amalamulira dziko lakumtunda, ndipo akuwonetsedwa ngati hornbill akukhala pamwamba pa mitambo pamwamba pa phiri; gawo lachikazi ndi Jata, yemwe amalamulira Underworld kuchokera pansi pa nyanja ngati mawonekedwe a njoka yamadzi. Mawonetseredwe awiriwa akugwirizanitsidwa kudzera pa mlatho wokhala ndi miyala yowonongeka yomwe ikuwoneka mu dziko lapansi ngati utawaleza. Mahatala-Jata amatumikiridwa ndi "akazi", mazira achikazi, ndi "abusa" osokoneza abambo omwe amatchulidwa kuti "njoka zakumwa zakumwa zomwe zafikira nthawi yomweyi". Amuna osiyana a transgender, "manang bali", amapezeka anthu a Iban Dayak. Atsikana omwe amadwala kuti akhale manang bali amayamba kulota kuti akhale mkazi komanso kutchulidwa ndi mulungu / wojambula Menjaya Raja Manang kapena mulungu wamkazi Ini. Menjaya Raja Manang adayamba kukhala mulungu wamwamuna, kufikira mkazi wake adayamba kudwala. Izi zinachititsa Menjara kukhala mchiritsi woyamba padziko lapansi, kumulola kuchiritsa mpongozi wake, koma mankhwalawa adawonetsanso kuti Menjara asinthe kukhala mkazi kapena kukhala mchimwene wake.

Nthano za ku America

  • Amaya ndi Aztec

Mulungu wa Mayan Chin, yemwe adanena kuchokera m'zaka za zana lachisanu ndi chimodzi ndi chimodzi, akunenedwa kuti adayambitsa chikhalidwe cha Mayan ndipo adayamba kugwirizana ndi chikondi cha amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Chitsanzo chake chinalimbikitsa mabanja olemekezeka kugula anyamata ngati okonda ana awo, ndikupanga maubwenzi ovomerezeka ku ukwati. Mulungu wofunika wa Mayan wodziwika bwino kwambiri kuchokera ku nthawi yamakedzana (200-900 AD), wotchedwa Mulungu Wotchedwa Tonsured Maize, nthawi zambiri amawonetsedwa muchithunzi cha Maya monga mnyamata wochita bwino ndi zojambula ndi kuvina, ndipo akuganiza kuti Wakhala ' wachitatu kugonana '.

Xochipilli ('Flower Prince') wakhala ali mulungu wa zithunzi, Online Games, Kukongola, kuvina, maluwa, chimanga, ndi chidziwitso ku nthano za Aztec, kuphatikizapo wotsogolera amuna ndi akazi okhaokha komanso achigololo.

  • Yang'anani Awiri-mzimu

Kubwerera ku chiyanjano cha Inuit, anthu awiriwa adali Ajjjusiusi Ndi Uumarnituq, amuna ofanana. Banja ili linasankha kukwatirana ndi kukonda bungwe. Kukumana kumeneku kunayambitsa kubereka kuti upeze Uumarnituq. Popeza adalibe zida zothandizira kubereka, chithunzithunzi chinali chitayika chomwe chinapangitsa kuti mwamuna wake am'patse mkazi ndi mphamvu yoti achoke mwanayo. Ngakhale Uumarnituq anali ndi udindo wopereka nkhondo ngati njira yothetsera anthu ambiri. Mkazi wamkazi Sedna akhoza kukhala woyambitsa Inuit pogwiritsa ntchito ulamuliro wa zolengedwa. Shamans amawonetsedwa ngati hermaphroditic kapena ngakhale achikazi amamutumikira. Nthano zimasonyeza kuti Sedna akugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena amakhala wokhudzana ndi kugonana, amakhala m'madzi.

Nkhani za Amwenye Achimereka zimaphatikizapo Coyote kunyengerera zibwenzi zokhudzana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ngakhale patapita nthawi kuti adzivulaze. Mizimu yodabwitsa yowonjezera nthawi zina imangotenga mwazimayi ngati palibe zowonjezera zowonjezera mphatso zapadera pamene akufuna kunyenga mtsikana wokongola kwambiri.

vuduu

Kutumizidwa kwa zonse zotchedwa Baron Saturday, a.

Ngakhale chiwerengero chachikulu cha miyoyo kapena milungu (la) zilipo ku Haiti Zonsezi zikhoza kuonedwa ngati magulu a anthu monga chinthu chimodzi ndi zinthu zosiyana, kuphatikizapo malumikizano ndi malo osiyana a moyo wa tsiku ndi tsiku.

Ambiri amagwirizana kapena akudutsa kuchokera ku Ghedes ndi Barons. Ambiri mwa iwo ali ofanana kwambiri ndi kugonana komweko kapena kugwirizana kwa transgenderism. Izi zikuphatikizapo Ghede Nibo, moyo umene ukuyang'anira aliyense amene akuwonongeka wamng'ono. Nthawi zina amawonetsa kuti kukhala mfumukazi yapamwamba imamukankhira munthu aliyense yemwe amatha kukonda zachikhalidwe zamtundu uliwonse, makamaka zachiwerewere kapena transgender khalidwe la amayi. Amayi ndi abambo a Ghede Nibo ndi Baron Samedi ndi Maman Brigitte; Baron Samedi angakhale mpainiya wanu Mabungwe ndi Mabanoni ndipo akhoza kufotokozedwa ngati amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapenanso kugonana kwapakati paokha, ndikupatsanso chovala chokwanira pamodzi ndi jekete lachangu pamodzi ndi jeans azimayi ndi masiketi. Samedi amabwera ndi chizoloŵezi cha "kayendetsedwe konyansa" komwe kumadutsa malire a amuna ndi akazi ndipo amasonyeza kunyada kwa kugonana kwa agonana.

Zizindikiro Zamakono Zizindikirozi ndi Baron Lundy pamodzi ndi Baron Limba, omwe akhala akuthandizira ndikuwongolera mtundu wina wokhudzana ndi kugonana kosasokonezeka pakati pawo, womwe ukuwongolera kuti ukhale wopambana. Baron Oua Oua, yemwe nthawi zonse amamugwiritsira ntchito mwana ngati chinthu, amatchedwa "bar-on" omwe amagwirizana kwambiri ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha "kuchokera kuzinthu za Voodoo.

Chilendo china, '' Erzulie, Chimalumikizana ndi chikondi ndi kukongola. Erzulie akhoza kuwonetsa zinthu zomwe ziri zokhudzana ndi LGBT, mwachitsanzo, zosagonana kapena mazonian, kuphatikizapo zachikazi. Pogwira anyamata, ziwalozi zimayambitsa khalidwe loledzeretsa kapena kugonana, komwe angayambitse kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi kapena akazi. Erzulie Freda amadziwika kuti amateteza amuna achikulire omwe anali amuna okhaokha, komanso Erzulie Dantor akugwirizana ndi azimayi.

Santeria pamodzi ndi Candomblé

Santería komanso Candomblé akhala zipembedzo za Yoruba diasporic chikhulupiriro ndi katolika, zomwe zimapezeka ku South America, zomwe zimaphatikizapo Cuba ndi Brazil. Nthano zawo zimakhala zofanana kwambiri ndi izi za Chiyoruba, zimaphatikizansopo gulu la anthu awiri a Oríshas (miyoyo), mofanana ndi (monga momwe amadziwira) kuti ma Voodoo.

M'chilankhulo chimodzi cha Cuba chotchedwa "pataki", kapena nthano Yophiphiritsira, mulungu wamkazi wa Yemaha waponyedwa kugonana ndi mwana wake Shango. Pofuna kutseka manyazi ake panthawiyi, adayandikira ana ake aamuna awiri, Inle komanso Abbata, kuti akaitane panyanja, kudula lilime la Inle komanso kupeza Abbata osamva. Chifukwa cha kudzipatula komanso kudzipatula, Inle ndi Abbata amakula kukhala okondana kwambiri komanso okondedwa, omwe angathe kuwonetsa. Pataki iyi ikhoza kugwiritsidwa ntchito pofotokozera magwero a zibwenzi, kugonana, ndi ogontha komanso kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Middle Eastern nthano

Madera a Mesopotamiya ndi Kanani anali atagwiritsidwa ntchito Ngakhalenso nthano za onse omwe anali, nthawi zambiri zokhudzana ndi maumboni enieni ndi milungu yongopeka komanso umunthu pansi pa mayina apadera.

Kuchokera ku 2000 BCE, akulemba anthu osiyanasiyana omwe amadziwika ndi mulungu wamkazi Ninmah. Izi zimaphatikizapo "mkazi yemwe sangathe kubereka" komanso "yemwe alibe chiwalo kapena chiwalo chachikazi", zomwe zimatengedwa kuti ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kapena mkazi. Enki, mulungu wamkulu, adzalandira anthuwa ndikuwongolera ntchitoyi. chikhalidwe chifukwa "naditu" (ansembe aakazi) komanso "girsequ" (antchito mu mfumu). A Akkadian epic epic Atichasis epic ikuphatikizana ndi zotsatirazi ndi nkhani iyi, yomwe Enzi akufunsa kuti Ninth kupanga "gawo lachitatu" awo yemwe ali ndi amuna ndi akazi achitatu-amuna ndi akazi, amabala amayi, komanso "chiwanda choba ana".

Ku Mesopotamia, kupembedzedwa kwa mulungu wamkazi uyu Inanna anafotokoza "zowawa" zomwe zimaimbidwa ndi odyana a 3rd omwe amatchedwa "gala". Malingana ndi malemba achikulire a Babulo omwe ansembe awa adalengedweratu adapanga cholinga ichi kuchokera kwa Enki mulungu. Gala pang'ono inatenga maudindo achikazi, komanso mawu omwewo amasonyeza "penis + anus", amatsutsa kuimirira kwawo. Chipatala cha mafuko, kapena "ine", chodziwika bwino, chachitatu kapena mwamuna wothandizana nawo amodzi mwina nkhuku chinali gawo la lingaliro lomwe tsopano lakhala likuchotsedwanso ndi Innana ndi Enki pa "Kutuluka kwa Innana" maloto. , kuti kugonana kwa "kurggaru" pamodzi ndi ansembe a "assinnu" akukhudzidwa kwambiri ndi mulungu wamkazi Ishtar, omwe amachititsa kuti akaziwa asinthe. Kusintha kumeneku kungapangitse kukhala ndi umwini wa mulunguyo, kupangitsa kusintha maganizo kapena kuchenjeza thupi.

Msonkhano pakati pa a protagonist Gilgamesh komanso Enkidu Wake wapamtima kwambiri pa Epigeria Epic ya Gilgamesh adamasuliridwa kuti ndizochita zamaganizo ndi akatswiri ambiri amasiku ano. Enkidu anabadwa monga mnzake ku Gilgamesh kuchokera kwa mulungu wamkazi, Aruru. wa hule. Monga Gilgamesh ndi Enkidu adakhalapo zaka zambiri, ndipo chikondi chawo chinkaonedwa ngati chovomerezeka monolithic, poyerekeza ndi njira zonse zoyambirira za Greece kapena Persia.

Zoroastrianism

Onani mitu ya LGBT ndi Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism inanenedwa kukhala ndi "chidani cha mwamuna Chomwe chimayimilidwa mu nthano zake zokha: Ahriman," Mzimu Wokondedwa ndi Imfa "pamodzi ndi" Ambuye wa Bodza ", akuyesera kuwononga dziko lonse lapansi, mwa kudzikonda. Kugonana kwachiwerewere uku kumabweretsa "kupasuka kwa mphamvu yoipa" ndi zotsatira za kufika kwa anthu ambiri oipa ndi ziwanda. Ahriman watengedwa ngati woyang'anira awo omwe amadya zogonana. Komabe, kuwonetsera koipa kwa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kuchokera ku Zoroastrianism sikuwoneka pa Gathas, buku lawo loyera lomwe likuyenera kuti likhale mawu a mneneri Zoroaster.

David ndi Jonathan ku "La Somme le Roy" (1290 CE)

Akupha

Nkhani ya Davide ndi Yonatani inamveketsedwa bwino pamene bungwe la David ndi Jonatani likuphimbidwa kwambiri mu Bukhu la Chipangano Chakale la Samueli, komanso kuti ndi gawo la nkhani iyi ya kuwonjezeka kwa Davide ku magetsi. Lingaliro la Aigupto lodziwika mu exesgesis limatsimikizira kuti mgwirizano pakati pa zonse ndi ubwenzi wapafupi wa platonic. Komabe, pakhala msonkhano waukulu wotsanzira kugwirizana pakati pa Davide ndi Jonatani kugonana kapena kugonana.

Wopambana winanso, Nowa Chingalawa kupulumutsa anthu ndi otsutsa omwe anabweretsa kusefukira anasandulika kukhala wopanga vinyo. Anagona tulo ndikumwa vinyo 1 madzulo. Ngati mwana wake Hamu alowa mwa mwanayo, amapeza atate wake wamasiye, ndi Kanani, Mmodzi wa ana a Ham adzaphedwa ndi kuthamangitsidwa. M'Chiyuda, zimatanthauza kuti Hamu anagonana ndi Nowa kapena anamutsutsa.

Yuda Chikhristu

Sebastian Woyera, mbiri yapamwamba kwambiri ya LGBT pub.

Kuwonongeka kwa Sodomu monga chitsanzo cha Sebastian Munster Dating yatsogolera olemba ndemanga angapo kuti athe kukhulupirira awa anali mafani. Zizindikiro zodziwika kwambiri ndi lingaliro limeneli ndizowona kuti ndizofera chikhulupiriro chawo, kuchokera ku chiyankhulo cha Chigriki, amawafotokozera ngati "erastai", kapena ngakhale mafani. Wolemba mbiri John Boswell ankakhulupirira ubale wake pa nkhani ya chikhristu choyambirira pakati pawo, kugwirizanitsa maganizo ake okhudza kukhala nzika zakunja za chikhristu zokhudzana ndi kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Mkhalidwe woyenera wa Tchalitchi cha Orthodox chakum'maŵa ndikuti chikhalidwe chakummawa cha adelphopoiiathat chapindulitsidwa kuti chikhale "ubale" wochokera ku mutu wa Mulungu, chikhozanso kuyanjana ndi oyera mtima anu a 2 'popanda zotsatira za kugonana.

Sebastian Woyera akhoza kukhala akadakali pub yomwe imakhala yachiwerewere yomwe ndi yayitali. Combo wa thupi lake lamphamvu, losautsa mtima mkhalidwe wa mivi imeneyi yomwe imalowa m'thupi lake lonse, komanso momwe amachitira akamachita masewera olimbitsa thupi (okonda kugonana amuna okhaokha kapena kwina kulikonse) kwa zaka ndi zaka, nayenso anayamba mchitidwe woyamba kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha 19thcentury.

Islamic ndi Pre-Islamic Arabia

Anthu amakhulupirira Kupitiliza kukhala nawo Kuphatikiza ma Jinn, mizimu yowonongeka yomwe imachokera ku "moto wosasaka" (Qur'an 15: 27) yomwe ikugwirizana ndi gulu lina la angelo omwe anabadwira tsiku lachisanu la chilengedwe kuchokera ku Qabalistic Jewish, komanso Bahir ("Chiwalitsiro") chomwe chinapangidwa kuchokera ku "moto wopanda chilema." Ambiri amakhulupirira kuti luso lawo limawathandiza kuti azichita zachiwerewere komabe sizomwe zikugwirizana ndi chilengedwe chonse cha Chisilamu koma mphamvu zawo zoyendayenda ndikuuluka mofulumira ndizo mphamvu ma Jinn awo. Dzina lakuti Jinn limatanthauza "zobisika pamaso" ndipo nthawi zina amawoneka kuti akutsogoleredwa ndi Shaytaan (Arabic chifukwa cha "satana") (amene angakhaledi Mdyerekezi amatchedwanso Islam chifukwa Iblis "iye amene amachititsa mantha") , akuyimira mphamvu zamatsenga komanso ukapolo - ndikuwonetseranso ngati obweretsa chuma pamene satana amavomereza.

Zonsezi ndizogwirizana ndi ziwanda chifukwa cha kupanduka kwa Shaytaan kuchokera mu dongosolo la Allah kuti avomereze mphamvu za Adamu kuti azichita bwino kuposa ma Jinn pamodzi ndi kukana kunena kuti "adalengedwa kuchokera kumoto ndipo Adamu adalengedwa kuchokera ku dothi" Kukhoza kwa ma Jinn kupita kumalo a mlengalenga ndikugwirizanitsa ndi nkhani ya angelo ndikubwezeretsanso zomwe iwo amawatumizira ndikuziwerengera m'masomphenya ndipo mauthenga aphatikizana nawo pamodzi ndi matsenga (Korani 72: 8-10).

Zijini zimagwiritsidwa ntchito Al-Jink komanso Mukhannathunand Trans Gender ndi Wanderers ndi ntchito zauzimu ndi zosangalatsa. Mu Arabic ndi Oikoumene civilizations, Amuna ndi akazi, awa mwachitsanzo Mwachitsanzo Mukhannathun akhala olambira m'madera ambiri omwe amalalikira zipembedzo za Mulungu. Mipingo iyi Al-lat, Al-Uza, yomwe in Arabia ya Islam isanakhale ndi maganizo kuti akhale abale a Allah koma adatsutsidwa ngati mafano onyenga.

Nthano za Arabia zimaphatikizapo akasupe okondweretsa kusintha kapena kugwa akasupe, awa monga chitsanzo monga Al-Zahra. Pofuna kumwa mowa kapena kuchokera ku Zahra, zofuna za amai zimakhudza. Malo otchuka a Swat onse, kumpoto kwa Pakistan nthawi zambiri amatha kugwirizana komwe kugonana pakati pa "wokondedwa" kungakhale mnyamata wokongola wachinyamata.

Tanthauzo la kugonana likusintha Ndi mawu oti "gay" sanagwiritsidwe ntchito pofotokoza za kugonana pakati pa zaka za m'ma 1800. '' Njira zambiri zamagulu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kufotokoza za kugonana. Zotsatira zake zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kubwezeretsa zotsatira za maphunziro a kafukufuku.Koma, matanthauzo ambiri amaphatikizapo zinthu monga gawo la maganizo (monga kusamalira zofuna zogonana) kapena gawo la makhalidwe pazomwe mwamuna kapena mkazi wake akugonana) Ena amafuna kugwirizana ndi kudzifotokozera kapena kudziimira payekha. Onetsetsani kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso kugonana kwazinthu zomwe zimakonda kunena anthu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha (LGB).

Kukula kwakukulu kwa anthu omwe ali kumadzulo ndi mndandanda uwu kungakhale chifukwa cha chikhalidwe cha anthu. Pew Research Center ya 2003 Global Attitudes Survey inapeza kuti "anthu a ku Africa ndi Middle East amakana kwambiri kuti anthu azigonana amuna okhaokha kapena akazi okhaokha. Makhalidwe a kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha m'mayiko a Latin America amalekerera, komabe Mexico ndi Brazil sizinayambe kuvomereza nkhaniyi.

Malingaliro a zipembedzo zonse ndi okhulupirira amasiyana pakupereka kuganiza kuti chikhalidwe chomwe chimagwirizanitsa kugonana ndi kugonana chidzakhala chiwonetsero chanu chokwanira chakumwamba. Zipembedzo zina zimasiyanitsa zokhudzana ndi kugonana zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito pochita chiwerewere (nthawi zina zimatheka kokha ngati mukwati woyenera m'banja ndi nthawi inayake), komanso ntchito zina zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa chisangalalo, monga chiwerewere.

Chidule

Makhalidwe ambiri akhala osiyana kwambiri pazaka zomwe zikuphatikizapo zitukuko. Makhalidwe ogonana - zoyenera za khalidwe la anthu - zikhoza kugwirizana ndi zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo, kapena ngakhale izi. Kuwoneka ndi kugonana kwenikweni ndi zinthu mu chikhalidwe komanso kugwirizana kwa munthu aliyense. Kuwonjezera apo, "zoletsa zogonana" ndizo mwa anthu onse okhala ndi chitukuko chosamvetsetseka m'madera ambiri.

Zipembedzo zambiri zazindikira kuti ndizofunikira Funso la "ntchito yoyenera" ya uzimu pakuyanjana kwa anthu. Zipembedzo zosiyanasiyana zimakhala ndi zizindikiro zosiyana siyana, zomwe zimayendetsa ntchito kapena nthumwi zoyenera kuti zikhale zowonjezereka m'maganizo kapena zochita zina. Kuphimba nkhani zachilendo, zachilendo, umphumphu ndi zina. Zizindikiro izi zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta.

Chikhulupiriro cha Abrahamu

Kuchokera ku Chikhulupiliro cha Bahá'í, maubwenzi okondana amaloledwa kokha a Bah'un, kapena kuti Mlengi wa Chikhulupiliro cha Bahá'í m'buku lake la malamulo, Kitab-i-Aqdas, amaletsa kugonana kosagonana. Chikhulupiliro cha Bahá'í chimavomereza kuti kufunika kwa chilakolako ichi, ngakhale kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwake kulipo mu mgwirizano wa mgwirizano; Baha'is sakhulupirira kuthetsa chilakolako cha amayi awo koma mwadzidzidzi okha ndi malamulo awo.

Christianity

Zasonyezedwa Kuti gawo ili lasweka mu Nkhani ina yotchedwa Chikhristu ndi zachilendo.

Penyani dama, Chikhristu ndi kugonana, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso chikhristu, pamodzi ndi oyera a Phalli

New Testament

Gawoli Zikufunikiranso, zidzakhalanso zowonjezera kuyang'ana zigawo zogwirira ntchito. Ingobwerezerani zokambiranazi molingana ndi malangizo olembedwa kuchokera mu Buku la Mafilimu.

Paulo Mtumwi adati mu 1 Akorinto Kuti Ndizobwino Kwambiri kuti mlendo azikhala motere, komabe ngati sangathe kudziletsa okha, ndiye kuti ayenera kukwatira, "Kwa osakwatiwa komanso amasiye ndikumanena kuti Ndibwino kuti iwo azikhalabe osakwatira monga momwe ndilili. Chofunika kwambiri, momwe Paulo amaonera za kugonana ndizomwe zimakhala zopanda phindu kwa aliyense amene ali ndi malingaliro ena ake (mwina "wosagwirizana").

Wophunzira wa Chipangano Chatsopano NT Wright amanena kuti Paulo Wachiwerewere analetsedwa ndi Complete, ziribe kanthu kwa zipatala za Chikhristu zomwe zisanachitike. Mfundo za Wright "Ngati A Korinto anganene kuti, 'Chifukwa ndine MKorinto, ndakhala ndikusowa atsikana anzanga omwe ndikugona, omwe ndi gawo la chitukuko chathu,' Paulo angayankhe kuti, 'Osati lero ndinu Mkhristu simukutero. '

Ena awonetsanso kuti njira ya Paulo yothetsera ubwino wa amuna yakhala ikukhudzidwa ndi zowona kuti dziko lapansi lidakalipobe. Pansi pa izi, Paulo, poganiza kuti dziko lapansi lidzawomba, adatenga nkhawa izi, monga chiwerewere, ngati ali ndi chidwi mwa Akhristu. Makalata a Paulo amavumbula zovuta ndi mavuto poyerekeza ndi olemba Uthenga omwe akuyamikiridwa kwa Yesu, monga Paulo wakhala akupangira misonkhano yachikhristu ndikuyankhira pazochitika.

Wophunzira zaumulungu Lee Gatiss akuti "mawu akuti" Thawani chiwerewere (porneia) ndipo muthamangitse chikondi chenicheni "(taonani 1 Thess 4: 1 - 8) inali uthenga wolunjika kwa Akhristu omwe ali m'dziko losauka."

Mbiri yachikhristu

Mu Chikhristu, mawonetseredwe pa malemba omwe ali mwamalemba Anayambitsa zowonjezereka mu kuyesa kwa Bukhu ili la Genesis. Munda wa Edene watengedwa ngati chikhalidwe chokhazikika kwa Akhristu omwe adatha kuyesa; olemba ankanena za chisangalalo cha Kumwamba ku dalitso la Adamu ndi Eva mkati mwake.

Kusanthula kwa unamwali kuchokera ku tchalitchi kunakopeka ndi mpumulo kuti kusiyana pakati pa lamulo lanu la Genesis "kubala ndi kuchulukitsa" kukhala ndi chidziwitso chake chodziwika cha mgwirizanowu monga mgwirizano wa anthu, komanso kutanthauzira zapamwamba kwambiri za unamwali pa mgwirizano, Kugonana ndi zochitika zapakhomo potsutsana ndi mauthenga anu a Uthenga Wabwino Matt 19: 11-12, Matt 19: 29. mtundu wa 1 unayesa kufotokoza kuti malembawa analipo panthawi yomwe panalibe kugonana mu Edeni: Pambuyo pa kugwa kwa munthu komanso kuthamangitsidwa kuchokera ku Edeni, potero kumakhalabe namwali pamene chikhalidwe chabwino kuyambira ku Paradaiso wakale komanso kumwamba. John Chrysostom, Gregory wa Nyssa, Justin Martyr, Epiphanius wa Salami, ndi Irenaeus wa ku Lyons onse adatsutsa maganizo awa:

Gregory wa Nyssa, Pa Virginity, 1 2 "Iye adali asanakhale 15.2" Chifukwa chiyani ukwati sunayambe kuwonekera? Nchifukwa chiyani panalibe kugonana m'paradaiso? Bwanji osamva kupweteka kwa kubala pamaso pa temberero? Chifukwa nthawi imeneyo zinthu izi zinali zopanda pake ".

Irenaeus, Agaynst The Heresies, Book 3, ch 22: 4 "Koma Eva sanamvera, chifukwa sanamvere pamene adakali namwali, ndipo monga momwe adaliri Adamu, koma adali namwali (pakuti mu Paradaiso onse anali amaliseche, ndipo sanachite manyazi, monga iwo, atalengedwa kanthawi kochepa kale, sanamvetsetse za kubereka kwa ana: chifukwa kunali koyenera kuti ayambe kukalamba, ndiyeno kuchulukitsa kuyambira nthawi imeneyo kupita patsogolo), pokhala wosamvera, anachititsidwa chifukwa cha imfa, kwa iye yekha ndi kwa mtundu wonse wa anthu ... "

Epiphanius wa Salami, Pakati pazithunzi 78.17-19 "Ndipo monga mu paradaiso Eva, adakali namwali, adagwera mu tchimo la kusamvera, kamodzinso kupyolera mwa Virgin adabwera kumvera kwa chisomo".

Justin Martyr, Kuyankhulana ndi Trypho ch a Mamuna "Kwa Eva, yemwe anali namwali ndi wosadetsedwa, atakhala ndi pakati pa mawu a serpenti, anabala kusamvera ndi imfa. Koma Namwali Maria adalandira chikhulupiriro ndi chimwemwe, pamene mngelo Gabrieli adalengeza uthenga wabwino kwa iye ... "

Pulofesa John Noonan akuwonetsa kuti "ngati wina afunsa ... kumene abambo achikhristu adapeza malingaliro awo pa kugonana - malingaliro omwe alibe maziko a Baibulo - yankho liyenera kukhala, makamaka kuchokera ku Stoiki". Amagwiritsa ntchito malemba ochokera kwa Musonius Rufus, Seneca Wamng'ono, komanso Ocellus Lucanus, kufufuza ntchito kudzagwira ntchito ya Clement wa Alexandria, Origen ndi Jerome kuntchito za apainiya apamtima, makamaka monga kugwirizana ndi kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kotereku kwa ntchito zawo zakuthupi, zomwe pamasewero a Stoic ayenera kuchepetsedwa, opanda chifundo, komanso oyeneranso ndi cholinga chake cholenga.

Augustine wa Hippo ankafuna funso The glitches of Manichaeism. Ngakhale Manichees, malinga ndi Augustine, adatha "kutsutsana ndikwati, chifukwa amatsutsana ndi kubereka chomwe chiri cholinga cha ukwati." "Mankhwala omwe Manitoes amene Augustine ankadziwa ndi kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi yosabala monga yatsimikiziridwa ndi mankhwala achigiriki ", kuti Augustine amatsutsa (izi zikufaniziridwa ndi izi nthawi zonse zinalola kuti Chikatolika chigwiritse ntchito njira za kulera).

Moyo waumulungu wa amonke monga anthu akuluakulu Anadza ndi 2 pansi pa akatswiri a zaumulungu, John Cassian komanso Kayisarius wa Arles, Amene adanena za "zovuta" za moyo wawo. "Zomwe ankadandaula sizidakhala ndi chizoloŵezi chodziseweretsa maliseche, koma ndi amonke omwe analumbira chiyero. Lumbiro la amonkeli Linapangidwa ngati chilakolako; Choyesa Choyesedwa Choipa ... Zenizeni ... patsogolo pa Cassian, Kutamanda sikudakhulupirire kugonana kwa aliyense. "

Chikatolika

Onaninso: Ziphunzitso zaumulungu za Thupi Lanu ndi maonekedwe a Zipembedzo. maliseche

Kumayambiriro kwa zaka zapitazo, ngakhale mpingo wa Katolika umavomereza mgwirizano pakati pa mayi wobatizidwa ndi munthu kuti akhale sakramenti - chizindikiro chakunja chomwe chimapereka mphatso ya Mulungu ngati nkhani. Bungwe la Florence ku 1438 linapereka ulemu umenewu, pambuyo pa mauthenga a Tchalitchi kuchokera ku 1208, adalengezanso mgwirizanowu womwe unatsimikiziridwa kuti uli mbali ya ukwati wa Khristu kuchokera ku Tchalitchi. Komabe a Puritans, pofufuza mosamalitsa bungwe, kuona mgwirizano kukhala "boma", mosiyana ndi "chinthu" chachipembedzo, pakalipano kukhala "pansi pa ulamuliro wa milandu". Izi ndizo chifukwa chakuti iwo sankakhala nawo poyamba kuti apeze atsogoleri. Komanso, mgwirizanowu wagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti ukhale ngati "mpumulo wa kugonana" kuphatikizapo cholinga china cha uzimu.

Papa John Paul Wachiwiri Kwambiri Choyamba anali pafupi ndi zamulungu Mu thupi lanu lomwe, loperekedwa ndi mutu womwewo. Panthawi ya zaka za 5 adakumbukiranso za kugonana zomwe sizinali zovomerezeka komanso zabwino koma zinali za chipulumutso osati kutsutsidwa. Iye analangiza kuti anthu apangidwa ndi Mulungu wachikondi kuti akhale ndi cholinga: kukhala amuna otamanda omwe amasankha kuti azidzipereka okha. kugonana pakati pa mkazi ndi mwamuna kumangokhala chizindikiro chenicheni. [kufufuza?]

Iye akunena kuti palibe chithunzi china chokwanira cha mgwirizano umenewu ndi mgwirizano wa Mulungu mwa chikondi mwachiwiri poyerekeza ndi zochitika zokhudzana ndi ziwalo za anthu okwatirana, kumene amadzipereka okha mwa njira yonse - mwa munthu yekha, komanso kumapeto kwa izi moyo wawo wokha, komanso njira yowolowa manja yophatikizapo poyambitsa anthu omwe ali atsopano. Mwa njira iyi, amadziwa chiwerewere cha kugonana. Izi zimapangitsa kuti thupi lawo likhale ndi mawu omveka bwino, kutanthauza kukonda zachikondi pogwiritsira ntchito njira yanu kuti mukhale ndi zolinga zodzikuza, zoyenera kulandira amuna ngati zinthu pamodzi ndi nkhani, kusiyana ndi kulimbana ndi amuna a Igbo pamodzi ndikusangalala ndi kulemekeza kuti mizimu ili yoyenera. Yohane Paulo Wachiwiri akudandaula kuti panali kukongola mwachikondi pambuyo pofika ndi kudzipereka kwathunthu komwe kumapangidwira ndikudzipereka. Kwa ine ndekha, chikondi ichi chikhoza kukhala mtundu weniweni wa kupembedza.

Akatolika amati kugonana kungakhale tchimo.

Chiprotestanti

Achiprotestanti onse amanena kuti ndi kugonana kulikonse Pogwirizana, mwachitsanzo zomwe zinkachitika pakati pa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, kapena kuti okwatirana, zikhoza kukhala tchimo la chigololo. Kukana kwa kugonana kumaphatikizapo anthu otchuka kwambiri.

Mosiyana ndi ambiri a Roma Katolika, Aprotestanti sagwirizana ndi chiwerewere chifukwa cha kusowa kwa lamulo la m'Baibulo losiyana ndi ichi. Achiprotestanti ovomerezeka ndi Otsutsa Ambiri ngakhale kuti pali zovuta, monga kuwoneka mwa anthu kapena chilakolako kapena kudalira kuchitapo kanthu kapena kuonetsetsa kuti sizimayambitsa zolaula, kugonana sikuti ndi tchimo chabe. Sichiyenera kuchitika ndi mzimu wotsutsana ndi Mulungu.

Mpingo wa Evangelical ku Germany ndi ku Netherlands ndi Switzerland umawona kuti lamuloli likuphwanya. Mu a Lutheran, a United ndi a Reformed mipingo atumiki saloledwa mu utumiki ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha saloledwa mkati mwa mipingo yawo.

Eva Brunner angakhale kwenikweni kwenikweni akugonana.

Ngakhalenso Metropolitan Community Church, yomwe imatchedwanso Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches, ikuphatikizapo kufalitsa anthu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, komanso mabanja awo.

Kuchokera ku tchalitchi cha Anglican kusagwirizana kuli m'dalitso wa kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso kupirira kwa anthu okwatirana. Zokambiranazo zimakhudza kwambiri za chibwenzi pakati pa anthu a 2 omwe ali ndi chikhalidwe chofanana pakati pa chikhalidwe chawo chifukwa chogwirizana ndi chikondi cha chikondi. M'mabungwe ena a tchalitchi cha Anglican (Episcopal) ku Canada ndi USA amalola ansembe ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha muutumiki ndikuitana maofesi amtundu womwewo, omwe adakopeka kwambiri ndi madera osiyanasiyana a Mgonero wa Anglican. Mipingo mkati mwa madera a Africa ndi osamala kwambiri poyang'ana kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Amsembe ambiri m'mipingo yambiri ya Anglican amayenera kukhala osayenera ngati akufuna kuchita ntchito yawo.

Mormonism

Ngakhalenso mpingo wa LDS Musalole kuti mawu alionse atenge amuna ndi akazi ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Pa nthambi za Mormonism Chiphunzitso Chachikhazikitso Chachikulu kuti Mpingo wa LDS umalangiza malingaliro okhudzana ndi umphumphu mwalamulo la chiyanjano chomwe chimatsimikizira kuti chilakolako, chigololo, chisankhulidwe, komanso chiwerewere chakhala tchimo. Kuchokera ku 1800s kunathandiza kuti mukhale okwatirana komanso kukhala ndi ana komanso atsikana kuti akwatirane pa nthawi yomweyi kwa anyamata.

Pa atsogoleri a tchalitchi cha LDS ophunzitsidwa bwino asagwiritse ntchito maliseche monga gawo la kumvera mu lamulo la LDS la chiyero. Tchalitchi cha LDS chimaona kuti kugonana kokha kungakhale tchimo komanso kugonana kunja kwaukwati ndiko kunyansa. Mulungu amaganiziridwa kuti ali mgwirizano ndi Mayi Wachimwambamwamba Chilengedwe ndi Achimormoni amakhulupirira kuti mgwirizanowu ndi chomwe Mulungu amafunira ana ake omwe. Atsogoleri akuluakulu a tchalitchi cha LDS amagwiritsidwa ntchito posonyeza zokopa kwa anthu a ndendende momwemo momwemo amuna kapena akazi omwe anali tchimo kapena matenda omwe angathe kusintha kapena kusintha, koma lero ali ndi zero pambali pa kugonana kwa amuna ndi akazi okhaokha, Kusunthira kugonana ndizophatikiza zonse zonyenga. Otsatira, ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, ndi amuna omwe amagonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi omwe amasiyidwa ndi zosankha zawo zowononga kugonana, ngakhale kulowetsa zosiyana za kugonana, kapena kukhala ndi moyo wosagwirizana ndi chiwerewere (monga kuseweretsa maliseche) .

Tchalitchi cha LDS chimaphunzitsa kuti ntchito yofunikira ya amayi idzakhala Kuukitsa ana. Kuyambira pokhala akazi ogona, Atsikana omwe anatsutsa ntchitoyi, akhala akuonedwa kuti ndi opotoka komanso osokonezeka. Pambuyo pa 1890 atsogoleri achipembedzo a Mormon ankaphunzitsa kuti mitala inali njira yophweka yopulumutsira ndi abwenzi ambirimbiri apamtima ku 1900s, pamodzi ndi akazi ochepa.

Chikhulupiriro cha Mormon chimaphunzitsa kuti mgwirizano uyenera kukhala wogwiritsa ntchito Munthu komanso mkazi. Chikhulupiriro cha Mormon chimaletsa makhalidwe onse, ngati ali osakwatirana kapena intra-chikwati. Kubwerera ku Aroma 1: 24-32, Paulo analalikira kwa Aroma kuti khalidwe ndilochimwa. Kubwerera ku Levitiko 20: 13, Mose anali ndi makhalidwe ndi ntchito zomwe zinali zosiyana ndi chifuniro cha Mulungu. Kuchokera ku 1830s, '' Woyambitsa LDS Joseph Smith adayambitsa kachipatala. Tchalitchi cha nkhani ya ufulu chimasunga chipatala. Chipatala cha tchalitchi chaima. Chifukwa chomaliza mitala, Amormoni amakhulupirira kuti pali anthu osiyana a 2, komanso anthu omwe ali ndi 2 omwe ndi akazi komanso amodzi. Ngakhale gulu la LDS likunena zomwe iwo amasangalala ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha monga ana ndi abale a Ambuye wawo, komabe iwo ayenera kuchita zofuna zawo zomwe zakhala zikuchitika m'derali.

Mpingo Wachigwirizano

Ngakhale kuti Mpingo wa Unity pa siteji pamwini pawo unapereka mapemphelo Kuti abwezeretse kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, mpingo wakhala ukukonzekera atumiki ogonana amuna okhaokha, kuyamba ndi Ernest C. Wilson, yemwe adaikidwa monga utumiki ndi Mlengi Charles Fillmore, Anatumizidwa ku tchalitchi china ku Hollywood, California kuti adziŵe zamakhalidwe ake.

Islam

Islam imalimbikitsa kukwatirana ndi mtundu wina wa chizoloŵezi, amalingalira ndi chifukwa cha mtundu umene umagwirizanitsa anthu. Mavesi a Qur'an adakwanitsa kuvomereza amuna achi Muslim kuti akwatire asungwana mu zipembedzo zina zambiri za Abrahamu (ie Ayuda ndi Akhristu), malinga ngati amayi onse ndi okhulupirika kwa miyambo yawo yachipembedzo. Akatswiri amasiku ano adalengezanso chiweruzo chimenechi. Mtsikana wachisilamu, pa flip mbali, amaloledwa kukwatira munthu wachislam kuti akwatire munthu adzatanthawuza kuti ana angakula ngati osakhala Asilamu. Chiyanjano cha msungwana wachi Muslim ndi munthu wina chimaonedwa kukhala chopanda pake ndi choletsedwa, ndipo mwachilungamo chochitika. Chifukwa china chidzakhala kutsimikizira kuti ufulu wa amayi ukumvetsetsedwa pa mgwirizanowu.

Mitundu yambiri yogonana mu mgwirizano yonse imaloledwa. Kugonana kumatengedwa ngati udindo, makamaka ntchito, kuphatikizapo kukondweretsa. Haiti yosachepera imodzi imanena kuti kupeza mwamuna kukhala ndi chilakolako chogonana kungakhaledi chinthu chodabwitsa cholemekezedwa ndi Mulungu. Hadithi yotsatira imasonyeza kuti mkazi asanakwaniritsidwe, munthu sayenera kuchoka pa mateti, kutchula zinthu za boma.

Kulankhulana koletsedwa Kuyankhulana Pamene akuyamba kusamba. Pa zochitikazi, kugonana kwina (monga kumpsompsona komanso kugonana komwe sikudzakhala ndi zinthu monga chiwerewere Con-Tact) kumathandizidwa makamaka. Ubale wa nthawi yayitali (Mut'a, mgwirizano womwe wapatsidwa nthawi yayitali) ndi woletsedwa ndi magulu ambiri a maphunziro a Sunni, komabe amaperekedwa ndi magulu a maphunziro a Shia. Mikangano yakhala yokha yovomerezeka.

Chiwerewere chimapereka chilango. Kugonana musanakwatirane kumakhulupirira kuti ndi wochimwa osati wolimba. Lamulo lililonse la malamulo a khalidwe labwino likugwirizana ndi amuna ndi akazi mofanana.

Mudzapeza malingaliro otsutsa. Pamene akatswiri ena amatsutsana ndi zomwe amakhulupirira komanso kuti amakhulupirira kuti chiphunzitso cha Islamic (ena monga a filosofi ya Hanbali) amalingalira kuti anthu omwe amadya nkhawa chifukwa chochita chiwerewere kapena mantha. pokhapokha) iwo akhala akulimbana ndi kukwatira. Malingana ndi Hadiths akuitanidwa mofulumira Monga njira yothetsera kuyengerera pamodzi ndi malingaliro aumunthu kapena chiwerewere Kukambirana ndi kugonana kunja kumakhumudwitsidwa.

Chiyuda

Kuwona kwa Chiyuda chofala, kugonana ndi kubereka ndizo ntchito zopatulika zomwe mungathe kuchita, zomwe mungatsanzire Mulungu, "Mlengi", komanso kuti mupitirize kukhala oyera, mudzapeza malire ambiri. Palibe zovuta, zomwe zingatheke kuti zikhale zoyenera. Zimasokoneza mgwirizano wa kugonana kunja kwaukwati, zimasungunula zokhudzana ndi mgwirizano pakati pa mgwirizano wokhudzana ndi chikumbutso cha niddah onse, choletsedwa cha kugwirizana kuti mukhale ndi nthawi yochepa, kuphatikizapo nthawi, zoyenera za khalidwe ndi Zovala Zachiyuda zogonana zogonana zogonana ndi achikulire zochitika za chigololo, kuwonongeka kwa chigololo, chilakolako cha machimo, Chiyuda chimalola chisudzulo, ngakhale pamodzi ndi Chiyuda chonse cha Orthodox ndi Chiyuda chodziletsa kuti athetse chisamaliro chauzimu kuti athetse banja Chidziwitso Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda Chikhulupiliro Chiyuda pogwiritsa ntchito chitukuko chakumadzulo.

Ambiri mwa Chiyuda chovomerezeka satenga anthu ambiri amakhulupirira kuti ndi achiyuda komanso amatsutsa. Mphunzitsi wina wodalirika yemwe angatenge kwenikweni adzakhala Sharon Kleinbaum yemwe wakhala woyang'anira mu Reconstructions Judaism yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito malamulo a Chiyuda pamalo moyenera kukhala ovomerezeka, koma akhoza kuchitidwa ngati kukhala chikhalidwe chotsalira chomwe chiyenera kusungidwa pokhapokha ngati pali maziko ake. Iye ndi rabbi wamkulu pa mpingo wa Beit Simchat Torah ku New York umene umagwira ntchito payekha wa chipembedzo chachiyuda cha Chiyuda; R Kleinbaum imanena kuti polyamory ingakhale kwenikweni yokha yomwe imangokhala yosasokoneza moyo wachiyuda wodziwa bwino moyo. Ayuda ena opotoka kwambiri akuonjezeretsanso makolo akale a Baibulo ndi akazi ambiri ndi amphongo kuti ubale wa polyamorous ukhoza kukhala wopatulika mu Chiyuda. Panali mndandanda wamakalata wolembedwa ndi Ayuda opembedza, omwe amatchedwa AhavaRaba, omwe amafanana ndi "chikondi chachikulu" kuchokera ku Chiheberi. (Zomwe zimatanthauzidwa zimatsimikizira kuti pemphero la Ahava la rabba limasonyeza ambiri chifukwa cha "chikondi chochuluka" cha Mulungu.)

Wosamala

Chiyuda chodziletsa, pa Line ndi lingaliro lake lomwe Halakha (lamulo lachiyuda) lingakhale buku lovomerezeka pa moyo wa Ayuda tsiku ndi tsiku koma amayamba kusintha kuchokera kwa Rabbinate, wakhala ndi zizindikiro zambiri zomwe zimapezeka ndi Chiyuda cha Orthodox. Mwachindunji, mu December 2006, Komiti Yachiyuda ya Conservative ya Malamulo ndi Malamulo Achiyuda inali ndi malingaliro otsutsana. Chimodzimodzinso chiphunzitso choletsera khalidwe lachiwerewere kwa amuna, amuna okhaokha, omwe adalengeza kuti ndizoletsedwa ndi Baibulo, kulengeza zoletsedwa zosiyana (monga abambo amuna kapena akazi okhaokha). zovuta za arabi zinatanthauzira kutanthauzira kwake tanthauzo la Talmudic la Kevod HaBriyot ("ulemu waumunthu"). Icho chinapatsa madalitso okondana achiwerewere ndi amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi kuika abambo omwe amavomereza ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe amavomereza kuti asagwirizane nawo kugonana pamene akulepheretsa kumanga mtundu wa chiwerewere. Ndizochikhalidwe chachikhalidwe pazochita zachiwerewere. Njirayi imalola a rabbi, mipingo, pamodzi ndi makoleji kuti apange ndondomeko yawo. Izi zikusonyeza kuti kusintha kwa bulangeti kuletsedwa kuzipatala zamayiu. Amavomereza kusiyana kosiyana kwa zovuta pazochitika za Chiyuda cha Conservative, kotero kuti palibe njira imodzi yokha ya Conservative ya Ayuda yatsopano. Chiyuda chodziletsa pakalipano chimalepheretsa kusiyana pakati pa mawu ovomerezeka ndi omasuka pa nkhani za chikhalidwe chamakono cha America.

Chiyuda chodziletsa chimanena kuti pali ziwerengero zoletsedwa ndi zofunikira, mwachitsanzo chitsanzo chofunikira chomwe akazi amakondwerera kuletsedwa kwa makhalidwe kuphatikizapo malamulo apakhomo. Lamulo lodabwitsa limafuna atsikana kuti amvetsetse monga niddah kapena ngakhale Tuma mu nthawi yawo. Monga kukhala tuma, mkazi amathadi kuyembekezera masabata asanu ndi awiri chifukwa cha nthawi ya kusamba kuti athetse "masiku asanu ndi awiri" oyera kuti apite kumsika ndikuyamba kugonana. Pambuyo pake madzulo pomwe Komiti ya Malamulo ndi Malamulo a Chiyuda inafotokozera za kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, inafotokozera maulendo ambirimbiri onena za niddah zomwe zimaphatikizapo kuyankha miyambo yowonjezereka kwa mwamuna ndi mkazi wake Con-Tact nthawi yonse ya niddah pamene kulimbikitsa chiyanjano cha kugonana. Kuyankha pa kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha kunagwiritsidwa ntchito njira ya Conservative kupita ku nidda kuti adziwe kuti Baibulo limaletsa khalidwe lachiwerewere ndi kukweza malire Icho chinatcha kuti Rabbi mu khalidwe. Ngakhale yankholo linati izo zikanakhala zikupanga kufanana kwanzeru potsata njira yomwe amuna amachitira chiwerewere iwo ali ndi ulemu wawo kuti asunge ntchito zinazake ndi njira yake yokha ku niddah: momwe

Tikuyembekezera ophunzira kuti ayang'ane izi "Responsum" zomwe tikuyembekezera ophunzira kuti aziwone kuti machitidwe a CJLS. Kuwonjezera apo, tikuyembekeza kuti makomiti opatsidwa ntchito, otsogolera, koleji komanso ophunzira ena a ku koleji akhoza kulemekeza kukhala osungulumwa ndi olemekezeka a ophunzira ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso momwe amalemekezera kukhala okhaokha ndi kulemekezedwa kwa ophunzira a postsecondary.

Zimene adalamula kuti anthu asagwire ntchito monga "chiwerewere" muzikonzekeretsanso kuti mukhale ndi "banja lachikhalidwe" nthawi zonse, ngakhale mwinamwake osakweza mwakachetechete kapena kubwezeretsa chikhalidwe chilichonse cha boma pa khalidwe lachilendo osati laukwati.

Zisanayambe kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazogonana, yankho limeneli linali litatulutsidwa kwambiri m'maboma. Mwachidziwitso, nthawi iliyonse yomwe Theological Seminary ya ku America inati Kupanga ndondomeko ya inshuwalansi kuchokera ku malo okhala ndi anthu omwe amakhala nawo pakhomopo kumabweretsa chisankho.

Chiyuda chovomerezeka chimaletsa mgwirizano. Ndipo zizindikiro zake tsopano zikutanthauza kuti rabbi yemwe ali ndi mgwirizano wa chikhulupiriro adzathamangitsidwa ndi izo. Izi zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zosiyana siyana monga chitsanzo choletsera kulandira anthu ndi kulandira mawu obwera kumsonkhanopo ku zigawenga za ana a amayi. Mgwirizanowu wafala pakati pa anthu a Conservative, komanso bungwe la Conservative likugwirizana ndi maanja omwe ali ndi chiyembekezo cha ana awo pa Chiyuda.

Chiyuda chodziletsa, chomwe chinali chofuna kupeza zambiri za 20thcentury. Chipembedzo chachiyuda chachikulu chochokera ku United States chinagwidwa ndi chigawenga m'misinagoge ku United States kuti makumi asanu ndi anayi mphambu asanu ndi anayi mphambu asanu ndi atatu mphambu zisanu ndi zitatu, ndi 51 peresenti ya olowa m'sunagoge ku 1990 za 33.1percent mu 2001, ndi Ambiri akulephera kutembenukira ku Chiyuda cha Orthodox komanso ambiri otsala kuti asinthe. Kufotokozera mu chikhalidwe chamakono chamakono cha ku America pakunena pakati pa ufulu ndi zokhudzana ndi chikhalidwe chogonana komanso nkhani zowonjezera, kuphatikizapo kusiyana pakati pa ndondomeko ya boma ndi ndondomeko zachipatala zachipembedzo komanso zachipembedzo, zomwe zikhoza kuti zathandiza kuchepetsa .

Orthodox

Pali zowonjezereka ku mwambo uwu wa ndi kudzichepetsa kwenikweni (tzniut), monga kunanenedwa ndi Chiyuda cha Orthodox, chifukwa chochokera kuzinthu zowonjezera ku halakha. Kusunga malamulo amenewa kumakhala koyenera kuti nthawi zonse azitsatira za Orthodox ndi kusunga.

Chiyuda cha Orthodox chimaonjezera chiletso pa mgwirizano wa mgwirizanowu ndi ubale. Chiyuda cha Orthodox, popanda zipembedzo za Chiyuda, chimakhala ndi zilema zolepheretsa kusudzulana, ngakhale mwachitsanzo chitsanzo cha Baibulo kwa Kohen (mbadwa ya Aroni) kuti apereke chibwenzi kapena mkazi yemwe anachita nawo zochitika za kugonana. Lamulo la Orthodox la chisudzulo ndiloyenera kuti lizindikiritsidwe.

Kusintha, Kusintha Zinthu komanso Kuwonetseratu Anthu

Kusintha kwa Chiyuda, Chiyuda chachiyuda, komanso Chiyuda chokonzanso Zokonzanso zachilengedwe nthawi zambiri samachita chikondwerero kapena kufunafuna miyambo yachikumbutso yachikhalidwe ndi kulandira maubwenzi olandiridwa ndi ogwirizanitsa ndi maphwando odzipereka.

Kusintha ndi Kukonzekera Zipembedzo za Chiyuda zimakhala zolekerera. Rabbi m'midzi, ndipo mgwirizanowu ukhoza kukuchitirani inu. Chiyuda chachiyuda chimalola mgwirizano. Kusintha, Kukonzanso, ndi Chiyuda chaumulungu choonjezera nthawi zambiri sichitenga msonkhano wosudzulana motsutsana ndi woweruza wa chisudzulo.

Zakhala zophunzitsidwa maganizo olekerera a momwe Kusinthika, Kukonzanso, komanso Chiyuda chaumulungu motsatira zosiyana siyana ndi mgwirizano wa chikhulupiriro pakati pazikhulupiliro zikhoza kuti zakhala zikuwongolera kuwonjezeka kwawo kwa zaka makumi asanu ndi anayi zonse, pafupifupi pafupifupi 33 peresenti ya eni eni enieni okhudzana ndi 38 peresenti , zomwe zimasuntha Chiyuda cha Conservative pomwe chiri chipembedzo chachiyuda chachikulu ku United States.

Chibuddha

Kuwonetsetsa Kwambiri Kwachizolowezi Kwambiri kwa Chibuddha kudzakhala Malangizo Asanu komanso njira yolemekezeka ya 8, yomwe ikunena izi muyenera kugwirizanitsidwa ndi chilakolako chogonana. Malamulo onsewa amasankha mawonekedwe a ntchito zaufulu, mwinamwake mwinamwake osati malangizo a kumwamba kapena udindo.

Pazinthu zisanu, zazikuluzikulu ziyenera kukhala zoonjezera kuchokera kwa amai ndi abambo a anthu ena, wina wocheperapo (omwe ndi otetezedwa ndi makolo awo kapena osamalira), komanso omwe atenga malumbiro achipembedzo cholepheretsa. Pewani zochitika zonse zogonana ndi Buddha akuti adalangiza otsatira ake kuti asapewe kusayera "monga ngati dzenje lakuyaka."

Chihindu

  • Neopaganism

Ntchito zonse zachisangalalo ndi chikondi zikanakhala zonse [kuti miyambo ya 'Goddess'] miyambo, "kuchitiranso zovomerezeka kwa onse kapena zochitika za kugonana kwa akatswiri a Wiccan.

Kuchokera ku mitundu ya Wicca ya Gardnerian ndi Alexandria, "Rite Great" ndizo mwambo waumunthu. Kondwerani masewera a hieros, ochitidwa ndi wansembe Wopembedzera Wiccan Mulungu ndi Mulungu wamkazi. Mphatso Yaikulu imagwiritsidwa ntchito mophiphiritsira Kugwiritsa ntchito ndi Chilice monga zizindikiro za umaliseche ndi mbolo. Maonekedwe a mwambowu akukwaniritsidwa ndi anthu akuluakulu mafilimu komanso Mwachangu. Mphatso Yaikulu sichikuwoneka ngati chiyembekezo cha kugonana.

  • Satana

LaVeyan Satanism ndi gawo la zokondweretsa za Abrahamu, kuganizira zolemetsa zowonjezera ndi zina zotero. Satana amatsutsana ndi anthu ambiri, amafuna abambo, amatsenga, abambo, abambo, a polyamorists, amuna ndi akazi ogonana, komanso asexual. Kugonana kumaganiziridwa kuti ndizochitika pambuyo pake. Malamulo khumi ndi amodzi a satana a dziko lapansi amangopereka malangizo awiri okhudza kugonana: "Musamachite zachiwerewere pokhapokha ngati mutapatsidwa chizindikiro chakutenga" komanso "Musamavulaze ana" ngakhale kuti mapeto angakhale aakulu komanso akuphatikizapo kugwiritsa ntchito molakwa. Zakhala ziri gawo lokhazikika la mapulani a CoS chifukwa chiyambi chake mu 1966, kuyambira Peter H. Gillmore analemba m'nkhani yolimbikitsana kugonana komweko: "Potsiriza, popeza anthu ena amayesera kunena kuti maganizo athu pa kugonana ndi" chinachake chimapita "ngakhale titanena Mfundo ya maziko a "kuyankha kwa omwe ali ndi udindo," tiyenera kubwereza mfundo ina yofunikira: Mfundo ya filosofi ya Tchalitchi cha Satana imalepheretsa kuti kugonana ndi ana komanso nyama sizinthu. "

M'nkhaniyi adati: "Mpingo wa Satana ndi mpingo woyamba kugonana ndi amuna okhaokha. Pokhapokha ngati chikondi chiripo ndipo abwenzi akufuna kuti apange chiyanjano, timachirikiza chikhumbo chawo chokhala ndi mgwirizano wovomerezeka, ndi ufulu ndi maudindo omwe amachokera ku mgwirizano woterewu. "

  • Unitarian Universalism

Chiwerengero cha mipingo ya UU yakhala ikuyendetsa ntchito yowonongeka, yochita zinthu komanso yowonongeka kuti ikhale yodziwika kuti ndi "Mpingo Wowalandira": gulu lomwe limaphatikizapo kubweretsa zinthu zapadera kuti alandire ndikuphatikizapo amuna okhaokha, amuna okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna ndi akazi okhaokha. Anthu a U.GU amachititsa maukwati ogonana omwewo tsopano ali ndi mgwirizano wa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha omwe ndi ovomerezeka (ndipo nthawi zina ngakhale mwinamwake osati, monga mtundu wa chiwonetsero cha boma) Unitarian Universalists ali patsogolo pa ntchito yawo kupanga mgwirizano womwewo wa kugonana Milandu ndi maiko awo, kuphatikizapo ku gawo la federal. Amayi, amuna achikulire omwe ali achigololo, ndi azimayi omwe amadziwika kuti ndi azimayi, amadziwikiratu nthawi zonse monga atumiki, kuphatikizapo atumiki ambiri ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, ngakhale atakhala okwatirana mwalamulo kwa okwatirana awo. Mpingo wa Arlington Street wakhala webusaiti ya mgwirizano woyamba umenewu pamene uli mkati mwa United States. Nion - "Kuima Pambali pa Chikondi."

Aleister Crowley chovala cha Aztec, 1912.

Maginito amtunduwu ndiwotchulidwa pazinthu zogwirizanitsa zomwe zimapezeka muzochitika zamakono, zosangalatsa, kapena zachipembedzo ndi zauzimu zomwe zimawonedwa mu Western esotericism zomwe ndizo miyambo yambiri yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito mu chikhalidwe chakumadzulo, kapena ikukhudzana ndi chisamaliro ichi chosamvetsetseka chakumadzulo kwa chilengedwechi . . Chizoloŵezi cha 1 cha zamatsenga zokhudzana ndi kugonana chidzakhala pakali pano ndi kuthekera kwa kupititsa patsogolo kapena kukakamiza kugonana pamodzi ndi kuwonetseratu kwa zotsatira zomwe zili zofunika. Lingaliro la zamatsenga zogonana lingakhale lingaliro lanu kuti kugonana kwenikweni ndi mphamvu chabe yomwe ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kupitirira chimodzimodzi. Ziphunzitso zolemekezeka za zamatsenga pakati pa chilengedwe chakumadzulo zimachokera ku Paschal Beverly Randolph wamatsenga wa America, pansi pa Mysteries of Eulis. Mu gawo lotsiriza la kugonana kwa zaka zana izi Ida Craddock amasindikiza ntchito yosamalira zachilendo, Ambiri a Kumwamba ndi Psychic Wedlock. Aleister Crowley anayang'ana Mkwatibwi Akumwamba kuchokera m'mabuku a diary The Equinox, kunena kuti mwamtheradi anali:

Chimodzi mwa zolemba zawo zomwe zinalengedwa ndi anthu, Ndipo ziyenera kupeza mlembi. Mtsogoleri wa MS. akunena kuti iye anali mkazi wa mngelo. Chiphunzitsochi chikufotokozedwa mu nthawi yake. Kuphunzira kwake ndi kwakukulu kwambiri.

Bukhu ili liri ndi zinthu zabwino zamatsenga. Makalata osungirako Magick sadzakhalanso opanda.

Aleister Crowley anayamba kuda nkhawa ndi Theodor Reuss komanso Ordo Templi Orientis pambuyo pa buku la The Book of Lies pakati pa 1913 ndi 1912. Malingana ndi nkhani za Crowley, Reuss anam'fikira kuti amudzinenera kuti anali kufotokozera mndandanda wa zovuta zamaganizo (OTO) m'machaputala angapo osamvetsetsekawa ndi bukuli. Zomwe zinatsimikiziridwa za Reuss zomwe Crowley adatsiriza mosadzidzimutsa, adachita upainiya Crowley kupita ku IX ° (ngazi yachisanu ndi chinayi) ya OTO onse ndikumupanga "Sovereign Great Master General wa Ireland, Iona ndi Britains."

Ngakhale kuti OTO munali, pachiyambi, kuphunzitsa za amuna kugonana pazifukwa zabwino zadongosolo lino, ngati Crowley akukula kuti aganizire izi, adawonjezera ziphunzitsozo ndikuziphatikizira pamodzi ndi ndalama zotsatirazi:

  • Kuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi kapena ngakhale zamatsenga zogonana zogonana zimaphunzitsidwa, zotchedwa Lesser Work Sol
  • Njira zamatsenga zamaphunziro zinaphunzitsidwa
  • Njira zogonana zogonana zinaphunzitsidwa.

Pulofesa Mogwirizana ndi Crowley:

Bukhu la Chilamulo ichi limathetsa vutoli. Munthu aliyense ali ndi zonse zokwanira chifukwa zidzakhala zoyenera chifukwa cha iye mwini kuti akwaniritse zofuna zake. Lamulo la 1 likanakhala nthawi zonse kusamalira ntchito zambirizi. Kotero kuti ndikulimbikitseni inu kuti mukwaniritse chifuniro, ngakhale Munthu ayenera kuti asadye pamene ma brutes. Zenizeni zomwezo ndizofunikira pa kugonana. Tiyenera kugwira ntchito ndi sukulu iliyonse.

Chikondwerero bendera cha izi Zili pafupi ndi mayesero ambiri okhudzana ndi kugonana komanso zokhudzana ndi kugonana

Aganyu a m'dera lino mumzinda wa San Francisco

Zogonana ndi zitukuko zokhudzana ndi kugonana ndizochikhalidwe Chongokhala ndi anthu omwe adagawana zochitika, zochitika, kapena zochitika chifukwa cha kugonana pakati pawo kapena kugonana. Kuyambira nthawi zonse amanena kuti ang'onoang'ono angathe kuwonjezeredwa ndi mamembala onse a Adolf Brand, Magnus Hirschfeld, komanso Leontine Sagan ku Germany. Atsogoleri awa akhala akutsatiridwa kwambiri ndi Mattachine Society ndi Atsikana a Bilitis ku United States.

Mwina palibe amuna ambiri ogonana ndi kugonana Ophatikizana kapena kudziwa pogwiritsa ntchito chikhalidwe china. Zifukwa zimaphatikizapo nkhaŵa zokhudzana ndi chikhalidwe cha anthu, mtunda, kusadziŵa za kukhalapo kwa chikhalidwe chawo, kapena kulawa kuti asadziŵike ndi zachilendo - kapena - ngakhale zikhalidwe zosiyana kapena zachikhalidwe. Ena awonetseratu kuti zizindikiro za anthu a kumadzulo kwa dziko lapansi zimadalira zachilendo, zimakhala ndi zolakwika, komanso zimasiyira kutali kuti anthu onse adziwe za zolakwika ndi zachiwerewere. Izi zimachititsa kuti ambiri azikana zizindikiro zomwe zimawaika pamagulu awo pansi pa zomwe angakhulupirire zizindikiritso zomwe sizinawonongeke komanso mobwerezabwereza ngakhale akukana zomwe amafuna.

Ngakhale mbendera ya utawaleza wa m'dera lino la LGBT

Ngakhale Gombe loyandikana ndi chikhalidwe cha mkati mwa LGBT

Chitukuko ndi chikhalidwe chogawidwa ndi abambo azimayi ogonana ndi amuna ndi akazi. Zitha kudziwika ngati "chikhalidwe cha chiwerewere" kapena "chikhalidwe chachinyamata", komabe, mawu omwewo angakhale apadera kwa anthu ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Moyo umasintha ndi geography komanso umodzi wa Ophunzirawa. Mbali zambiri zomwe zimadziwika kuti ndizogawidwa kwa chitukuko cha amayi, azimayi, azimayi, azimayi, ndi a transgender Amuna ndi akazi akuphatikizapo:

Ntchito ya kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha, amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso amuna kapena akazi okhaokha. Izi zikhoza kukhala:

Oimba a LGBT amakono ndi zida za boma;

Zithunzi zakale zomwe zinatchulidwa kuti LGBT. Nthawi zambiri amatsutsidwa ngati ziri zoyenera kuzindikira ziwerengero zakale zomwe zimagwiritsa ntchito magawo amasiku ano pofuna kudziwitsira za kugonana (onani Mbiri ya zachilendo). Amuna ndi abambo ambiri a LGBT amakhulupirira kuti kukhala pachibwenzi kuntchito yawo komanso anthu amenewo kumayenderana ndi kugonana kwa kugonana kapena chidwi chofanana cha kugonana.

Kudziwa LGBT kumayenda.

Kumvetsetsa zinthu zomwe zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi amuna ndi akazi a LGBT.

Zizindikiro ndi Ziwerengero Zomwe Zapezeka M'mizinda iyi ya LGBT ndi LGBT, izi ziphatikizapo mudzi, kukoka makoko ndi mafumu, kukondwa kwa amuna okhaokha, komanso mbendera ya utawaleza.

M'matawuni ena, makamaka ku North America, amuna ogonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha ndi azimayi a Chimayi amakhala ndi chizoloŵezi chokhala m'madera omwe amadziwika bwino.

Madera akukonzekera Zangapo Nthawi zochepetsera chitukuko Chawo, kuphatikizapo monga chitsanzo Mwachitsanzo, Masewera Oyera, Masewera a Gay komanso Southern Decadence.

Polyamory

  • Mfundo yaikulu: Polyamory

Polyamory ndi mwambo wokhala pamodzi ndi kliniki yanu Yamakono yogwirizana kapena yogwirizana ndi 1 payekha komanso mwachangu. Polyamory ingawoneke chitukuko, gulu, kapena gulu la amuna ndi akazi omwe ali apadera kwa inu kapena kugonana. M'zikhalidwe zochepa kuti mwambo wokhala ndi mayanjano oipa omwe ali achikondi ndi wokangana.

Mitala (kliniki yomwe imasiyana kwambiri ndi polyamory) Kungakhale mwambo wopereka zambiri kuposa munthu wa 1. Zachokera ku malamulo oti akwatire mwamuna wa 1 wochokera ku United States; komabe, mudzapeza mitundu yambiri padziko lonse lapansi. N'kutheka kuti sizinali zachilendo pakati pa zaka zakummawa kwa anyamata akuluakulu kuti akhale ndi akazi ambiri. Mtundu woterewu umatchedwa polygyny.

Maukwati ambirimbiri m'madera ambiri a dziko lapansi Dziko lapansi silinathetsepo chikhalidwe cha zikhalidwe ziwiri komanso anthu ammudzi omwe amapita kuchipatala tsiku ndi tsiku komanso polyamory. Pali malipoti a mayiko amayesero omwe anayesedwa ku Western Europe ndi North America. Midzi izi, ngakhale mbali yaikulu, zatha. Kumayiko akumadzulo pali zochepa kapena zochepa zovomerezeka za polyamory. Izi sizikutanthauza kuti zotsatizanazi zokhudzana ndi chitukuko chakumadzulo (ndi zikhalidwe zina) sizilipo. Kuchokera ku United States kunawonetseredwa kuti peresenti ya 10 ya anthu amachita polyamory.

Polyamory ilipo nthawi yambiri yomwe anthu omwe ali m'magulu asanalowetsedwe ndi wokwatirana nawo (choncho). Pali zitsanzo ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya maubwenzi.

Mawu omveka bwino ayenera kukhala kuti m'mayiko komwe Polyamory alipo kapena alipo, amatha kugwirizana. Izi ziyenera kukhala zodziwikiratu kuti n'zosavuta kuti zonsezi zikhale zosavuta kuti anthu a ku West ndi kuyamikila chitukuko mwachangu ngati munthu ayesa choonadi mwa njira yopanda chiweruzo. Zikuwoneka kuti Kumadzulo kuli kuvomereza kwambiri gulu la LGBT ndi Polyamory chifukwa chake motere:

  • Zolinga zokhudzana ndi chiwerewere
  • Phunziro Lalikulu: Fetishism ya kugonana
  • Otsatira BDSM ku Taiwan
  • Ngakhale chiri chonse chomwe chiri chopanda malire kwenikweni chiri chabe chizindikiro cha polyamory.

Bungwe la bunny ndikumagwiritsa ntchito mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya feteleza pamodzi ndi fetasi. Zakudya zina zopangira chikhalidwe cha bunny zimaphatikizapo malo a bunny komanso zooneka bwino.

Ngakhale Omwe Ambiri Omwe Amakonda Kupanga Mafilimu Ambiri Amapezeka Kuchokera Kumsika

Zojambula za usiku zikugwiridwa ndi Chikhalidwe Chakumalo, mu mtundu wa mabala a usiku.

Zotsatira pa Mtsinje Waukulu chitukuko

Kugonana ndi zikhalidwe zochepa nthawi ndi nthawi Nthawi zambiri chitukuko chanenedwa. Pulofesa wina wa zaumulungu, Joshua Gamson, adalankhula ndi mafilimu owonetsera, otchuka ndi Oprah Winfrey pa 1980s omwe adapatsidwa mwayi wotchuka wa ma TV ndi kupanga chitukuko chachikulu chitukuko. "S Lang amachokera ku zikhalidwe zina, monga chikhalidwe chochepa, chomwe chidzakhala akhale gawo la mawu awo achilankhulo omwe ali ndi malongosoledwe ngakhale ngakhale ang'onoang'ono omwe akugwirizana.

Madonna ndizochepa zitukuko, mwachitsanzo chitsanzo chake choyenera. Posachedwapa, Vesi Yoyang'ana Queer ya Guy Yowongoka imadzutsa amuna achikulire Kupatsidwa malingaliro kapena zozizwitsa zimapanga.

Mitundu yopanda ma Western

Kubwerera ku 2006, Thai movie Rainbow Boys yotengedwa ndi Vitaya Saeng-aroon, akuwonetsa kugwirizana kwapakati paokha komwe kunali kugonana amuna okhaokha, kugonana. Vitaya anachita sewero lotsekemera Club M2, malo pa sauna. Kufunika kwa kanema kumawoneka mwachikhazikitso chake pachikhalidwe poyerekeza ndi Kumadzulo pamene zimakhudzana ndi zochitika zogonana ndi maudindo. Chithunzi china cha 2007, Bangkok Love Story, yotsogoleredwa ndi Poj Arnon, yatamandidwa chifukwa cha imfa ndi momwe mumaonera amuna kapena akazi okhaokha chifukwa chogonana ndi anthu omwe amagonana ndi amuna anzawo. Amuna ndi akazi omwe amapanga zowonjezera pamodzi ndi olemba ndi akatswiri pogwiritsa ntchito zithunzi zawo amayamba kukopa vuto la zolakwika ndi kugonana chifukwa ngakhale chikhalidwe chiri patsogolo. M'mayiko ambiri, koma nthawi zambiri amatsutsidwa ndi kusalidwa, kugonana amuna kapena akazi okhaokha komanso kugonana ndi amuna kapena akazi okhaokha nthawi zambiri amavomerezedwa ndi ovomerezeka.

Osati monga zitukuko za ku Ulaya zomwe zimakhazikitsidwa mwachikhristu zimakhala ndi malamulo ambiri otsutsana ndi LGBT mpaka posachedwa ndi chipembedzo, chitukuko cha China chinakhala chokomera kwambiri pokhudzana ndi kugwirizana komwe sikuli kokha-kugonana ndi amuna okhaokha. Komabe panali zoletsedwa kuchokera ku chiyanjano choyambirira cha chi China chomwe chinalembedwa kuyambira magawo. Mudzapeza zolemba za zikhalidwe zazing'ono zomwe zili m'moyo wachinenero cha Chitchaina, mudzapeza anthu omwe amatsutsa miyambo ya moyo ndi kugonana kwa amuna kapena akazi okhaokha.

Anthu ambiri a ku Japan adalandira zokopa zapadera, Ndipo mtunda wakhala uli pafupi chifukwa cha ntchito zonse zogonana zomwe ziri zowonongeka zomwe sizili kokha ku chikhalidwe chamakono chakumadzulo. Mbadwo umapanga malo oti onse ogonana azigwira ntchito. Kungoyambira kumbuyo kwa Western Touch, Japan sankakhala ndi njira yozindikiritsira yomwe munthu aliyense adziwonekeratu ndi chisankho chokhazikika (onani zochepa zogonana ku Japan). Ziphunzitso zogwirizana ndi momwe anthu ayenera kukhalira zikupitirizabe kukhala amphamvu ku mtundu wa azungu. Kufufuza koyambirira pa nkhani za kugonana ndi maudindo a amuna ku Asia Kuganizira kwambiri za zochepa zomwe amakhulupirira amayi, chifukwa "Zopanga ufulu wokhala nzika ndi ufulu wokhala nzika". Zokakamiza zimakhulupirira Pakati pa amuna akumadera a Asia Amene ali ndi udindo waukulu chifukwa cha "zilembo zazikuluzikulu" Zotsutsana zomwe ndi mphatso zomwe "chikhalidwe" zimaphatikizapo maziko ndipo sizingatchulidwe. Mipingo yosiyanasiyana Kupyolera muyeso ya maiko komanso m'madera ochiritsira a ku Asia onse amatchedwa, ochuluka. Komabe, Zosankha mitundu yaumunthu (ndi chikazi pa Nkhaniyi) Khalani '' amuna, odala.

en English
af Afrikaanssq Shqipam አማርኛar العربيةhy Հայերենaz Azərbaycan dilieu Euskarabe Беларуская моваbn বাংলাbs Bosanskibg Българскиca Catalàceb Cebuanony Chichewazh-CN 简体中文zh-tw 繁體中文co Corsuhr Hrvatskics Čeština‎da Dansknl Nederlandsen Englisheo Esperantoet Eestitl Filipinofi Suomifr Françaisfy Fryskgl Galegoka ქართულიde Deutschel Greekgu ગુજરાતીht Kreyol ayisyenha Harshen Hausahoo Ōlelo Hawaiʻiiw עִבְרִיתhi हिन्दीhmn Hmonghu Magyaris Íslenskaig Igboid Bahasa Indonesiaga Gaeligeit Italianoja 日本語jw Basa Jawakn ಕನ್ನಡkk Қазақ тіліkm ភាសាខ្មែរko 한국어ku كوردی‎ky Кыргызчаlo ພາສາລາວla Latinlv Latviešu valodalt Lietuvių kalbalb Lëtzebuergeschmk Македонски јазикmg Malagasyms Bahasa Melayuml മലയാളംmt Maltesemi Te Reo Māorimr मराठीmn Монголmy ဗမာစာne नेपालीno Norsk bokmålps پښتوfa فارسیpl Polskipt Portuguêspa ਪੰਜਾਬੀro Românăru Русскийsm Samoangd Gàidhligsr Српски језикst Sesothosn Shonasd سنڌيsi සිංහලsk Slovenčinasl Slovenščinaso Afsoomaalies Españolsu Basa Sundasw Kiswahilisv Svenskatg Тоҷикӣta தமிழ்te తెలుగుth ไทยtr Türkçeuk Українськаur اردوuz O‘zbekchavi Tiếng Việtcy Cymraegxh isiXhosayi יידישyo Yorùbázu Zulu
{